Essentials of Human Physiology and Pathophysiology for Pharmacy and Allied Health

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Download Essentials of Human Physiology and Pathophysiology for Pharmacy and Allied Health written by Laurie K. McCorry, Martin M. Zdanowicz in PDF format. This book is under the category Medicine and bearing the isbn/isbn13 number 367000482/9780367000486. You may reffer the table below for additional details of the book.

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Description

Combining two separate textbooks entitled Essentials of Human Physiology for Pharmacy and Essentials of Pathophysiology for Pharmacy into one cohesive volume; this new ebook seamlessly integrates material related to normal human physiology and pathophysiology into each chapter.

Chapters include:

  • An emphasis on the rationale for drug therapy;
  • Study objectives at the beginning of each chapter;
  • Summary tables; diagrams; flow charts; and key definitions;
  • Real-life case studies to emphasize clinical application and stimulate student critical thinking;

Simple; straightforward language. Written by authors with extensive teaching experience in the areas; Essentials of Human Physiology and Pathophysiology for Pharmacy and Allied Health (PDF) is a concise learning instrument that will guide students in pharmacy and allied health programs.

Additional information

book-author

Laurie K. McCorry, Martin M. Zdanowicz

publisher

Routledge; 1st edition

file-type

PDF

pages

780 pages

language

English

asin

B07NJ5H1BF

isbn10

367000482

isbn13

9780367000486

Table of contents


Table of contents :
Cover
Half Title
Title Page
Copyright Page
Table of Contents
Preface
Authors
Chapter 1: The cell
1.1 Plasma membrane
1.1.1 Structure and function of the plasma membrane
1.1.2 Membrane transport
1.2 Membrane potential
1.2.1 Development of the resting membrane potential
1.3 Electrical signals
1.3.1 Graded potentials
1.3.2 Action potentials
1.3.3 Conduction of the action potential
1.4 Synaptic transmission
1.4.1 Chemical synapses
1.4.2 Summation
1.4.3 Interconnections between neurons
1.4.4 Factors affecting synaptic transmission
1.4.4.1 Altered release of a neurotransmitter
1.4.4.2 Altered interaction of a neurotransmitter with its receptor
1.4.4.3 Altered removal of a neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft
1.4.4.4 Replacement of a deficient neurotransmitter
1.5 Cell injury
1.5.1 Cellular adaptation
1.5.2 Mechanisms of cell injury
1.5.3 Manifestations of cellular injury
1.5.4 Cell death
1.5.5 Tissue repair
1.5.6 Steps in tissue (wound) repair
Medical terminology
Bibliography
Chapter 2: Homeostasis
2.1 Homeostasis
2.1.1 Negative feedback
2.1.2 Positive feedback
Medical terminology
Bibliography
Chapter 3: The immune system
3.1 Overview of immune function
3.1.1 Agents of infectious disease
3.1.2 Effector cells of the immune system
3.1.3 Immune responses
3.1.4 Innate immune system
3.1.5 Adaptive immune system
3.1.5.1 Classification of antibodies
3.1.5.2 Structure of antibodies
3.1.5.3 Actions of antibodies
3.1.5.4 Clonal selection theory
3.1.5.5 Primary versus secondary responses
3.1.5.6 Active versus passive immunity
3.1.5.7 Types of T cells
3.1.5.8 Actions of T cells
3.1.5.9 MHC molecules
3.2 Alterations in immune function
3.2.1 Hypersensitivity reactions
3.2.1.1 Type I hypersensitivity reaction
3.2.1.2 Type II hypersensitivity reaction
3.2.1.3 Type III hypersensitivity reaction
3.2.1.4 Type IV hypersensitivity reaction
3.2.2 Autoimmune disease
Medical terminology
Bibliography
Chapter 4: Inflammation
4.1 Inflammatory mediators
4.1.1 Histamine and mast cells
Chapter 5: Blood and hemostasis
5.1 Blood
5.1.1 Plasma
5.1.2 Erythrocytes
5.1.3 Leukocytes
5.1.4 Platelets
5.2 Hemostasis
5.3 Alterations in hemostasis
5.3.1 Conditions associated with decreased coagulation
5.3.1.1 Hemophilia
5.3.1.2 von Willebrand disease
5.3.1.3 Vitamin K deficiency
5.3.1.4 Liver disease
5.3.2 Conditions affecting platelets
5.3.2.1 Thrombocytopenia
5.3.2.2 Immune thrombocytopenia purpura
5.3.2.3 Antiphospholipid syndrome
5.3.3 Conditions leading to increased blood coagulation (hypercoagulability)
5.3.4 Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
5.3.4.1 Manifestations of DIC
5.3.4.2 Treatment of DIC
5.4 Alterations in hematologic function and oxygen transport
5.4.1 Hematopoiesis
5.4.2 Anemia
5.4.2.1 General manifestations of anemia
5.4.3 Types of anemia
5.4.3.1 Hemolytic anemia
5.4.3.2 Blood loss anemia
5.4.4 Inherited anemia
5.4.4.1 Sickle cell disease
5.4.4.2 Thalassemia
5.4.4.3 Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency
5.4.4.4 Aplastic anemia
5.4.4.5 Polycythemia
Medical terminology
Bibliography
Chapter 6: The circulatory system
6.1 Blood vessels
6.2 Blood pressure
6.3 Blood flow
6.4 Regulation of arterial pressure
6.4.1 Vasomotor center
6.4.2 Baroreceptors
6.4.3 Chemoreceptors
6.4.4 Low-pressure receptors
6.4.5 Vasoconstrictors
6.4.6 Vasodilators
6.5 Venous regulation
6.5.1 Blood volume
6.5.2 Sympathetic stimulation of the veins
6.5.3 Skeletal muscle activity
6.5.4 Respiratory activity
6.6 Effects of gravity on the circulation
6.7 Regulation of blood flow through tissues
6.7.1 Active hyperemia
6.7.2 Autoregulation
6.8 Effects of acute exercise on the circulatory system
6.9 Capillary exchange
6.10 Disease of blood vessels
6.10.1 Arterial disease
6.10.2 Atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia
6.10.3 Inflammatory disease of arteries
6.10.4 Aneurysm
6.10.4.1 Clinical manifestations of aneurysm
6.10.4.2 Treatment of aneurysms
6.10.5 Disease of the veins
6.10.5.1 Venous thrombosis
6.10.5.2 Embolism
6.10.5.3 Anticoagulant and thrombolytic drug therapy
6.10.5.4 Varicose veins
6.10.5.5 Chronic venous insufficiency
6.11 Disorders of blood pressure
6.11.1 Primary (Essential) hypertension
6.11.2 Secondary hypertension
6.11.3 Malignant hypertension
6.11.4 Hypertension in pregnancy
6.11.5 Effects of chronic hypertension
6.11.6 Diagnosis and treatment of essential hypertension
6.11.7 Treatment of hypertension
6.11.8 Hypotension
6.11.8.1 Manifestations of hypotension
6.11.8.2 Treatment of hypotension
6.12 Shock
6.12.1 Hypovolemic shock
6.12.1.1 Physiologic responses to hypovolemic shock
6.12.1.2 Stages of symptoms of hypovolemic shock
6.12.1.3 Treatment of hypovolemic shock
6.12.2 Distributive shock
6.12.2.1 Symptoms of distributive shock
6.12.2.2 Treatment of distributive shock
6.12.3 Cardiogenic shock
6.12.3.1 Symptoms of cardiogenic shock
6.12.3.2 Treatment of cardiogenic shock
6.12.4 Complications of shock
Medical terminology
Bibliography
Chapter 7: The heart
7.1 Functional anatomy of the heart
7.1.1 Myocardial wall
7.2 Electrical activity of the heart
7.3 Electrocardiogram
7.4 Cardiac cycle
7.4.1 Ventricular filling
7.4.2 Isovolumetric contraction
7.4.3 Ejection
7.4.4 Isovolumetric relaxation
7.5 Cardiac output
7.6 Control of heart rate
7.7 Control of stroke volume
7.8 Effect of exercise on cardiac output
7.9 Diseases of the heart
7.9.1 Disorders of the pericardium, myocardium, and endocardium
7.9.1.1 Disorders of the pericardium
7.9.2 Diseases of the myocardium
7.9.2.1 Myocarditis
7.9.2.2 Cardiomyopathies
7.9.3 Disorders of the endocardium and heart valves
7.9.3.1 Infectious endocarditis
7.9.3.2 Rheumatic heart disease
7.9.4 Disorders of the heart valves
7.9.4.1 Mitral valve prolapse
7.9.4.2 Congenital heart defects
7.10 Myocardial ischemia
7.10.1 Manifestations of myocardial ischemia
7.10.2 Acute coronary syndromes
7.10.2.1 Rational for treatment of myocardial ischemia
7.10.2.2 Treatment of myocardial ischemia
7.11 Myocardial infarction
7.11.1 Coronary blood flow and myocardial infarction
7.11.2 Clinical manifestations of myocardial infarction
7.11.3 Compensatory mechanisms for myocardial infarction
7.11.4 Complications of myocardial infarction
7.11.5 Rationale for therapy
7.11.5.1 Treatment for myocardial infarction
7.12 Heart failure
7.12.1 Classification of heart failure
7.12.2 Left heart failure
7.12.2.1 Manifestations of left-heart failure
7.12.3 Right heart failure
7.12.3.1 Manifestations of right-heart failure
7.12.4 Physiologic compensation for heart failure
7.12.5 Diagnosis of heart failure
7.12.6 Rationale for treatment of heart failure
7.13 Cardiac arrhythmia
7.13.1 Factors that may contribute to the development of a cardiac arrhythmia
7.13.2 Inherited arrhythmias
7.13.3 Mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia
7.13.4 Types of arrhythmia
7.13.4.1 Sinus node arrhythmia
7.13.4.2 Atrial arrhythmia
7.13.4.3 Ventricular arrhythmia
7.13.5 Heart block
7.13.5.1 First-degree heart block
7.13.5.2 Second-degree heart block
7.13.5.3 Third-degree heart block
7.13.5.4 Stokes-Adams syndrome
7.13.5.5 Bundle branch block
7.13.6 Diagnosis of arrhythmia
7.13.7 Rationale for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmia
7.13.8 Treatment of cardiac arrhythmia
7.13.8.1 Pharmacologic
7.13.8.2 Non-pharmacologic treatment of arrhythmia
Medical terminology
Bibliography
Chapter 8: The respiratory system
8.1 Blood-gas interface
8.2 Airways
8.2.1 Cartilage
8.2.2 Epithelium
8.3 The pleura
8.4 Mechanics of breathing
8.4.1 Thoracic volume
8.4.2 Inspiration
8.4.3 Expiration
8.4.4 Lung volume
8.4.5 Pulmonary pressures
8.5 Interdependence
8.6 Airway resistance
8.6.1 Lung volume
8.6.2 Airway obstruction
8.6.3 Bronchial smooth muscle tone
8.7 Ventilation
8.7.1 Standard lung volumes
8.7.2 Total ventilation
8.7.3 Alveolar ventilation
8.7.4 Dead space
8.8 Diffusion
8.9 Partial pressures
8.10 Gas transport
8.10.1 Transport of oxygen
8.10.2 Factors affecting the transport of oxygen
8.10.3 Transport of carbon dioxide
8.11 Regulation of ventilation
8.11.1 Chemoreceptor response to decreased arterial PO2
8.11.2 Chemoreceptor response to increased arterial PCO2
8.11.2.1 Chemoreceptor response to increased arterial hydrogen ion concentration
8.12 Ventilatory response to exercise
8.13 Disorders of the respiratory system
8.13.1 Respiratory infections
8.13.1.1 Infections of the upper respiratory tract
8.13.1.2 Infections of the lower respiratory tract
8.13.2 Cancers of the respiratory tract
8.13.2.1 Laryngeal cancer
8.13.2.2 Lung cancer
8.13.3 Obstructive and restrictive pulmonary disorders
8.13.4 Obstructive pulmonary disorders
8.13.4.1 Asthma
8.13.5 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
8.13.5.1 Bronchitis
8.13.5.2 Emphysema
8.13.6 Cystic fibrosis
8.13.6.1 Manifestations of cystic fibrosis
8.13.6.2 Diagnosis of cystic fibrosis
8.13.6.3 Treatment of cystic fibrosis
8.13.7 Restrictive pulmonary disorders
8.13.7.1 Pleuritis, pleural effusion
8.13.7.2 Pneumothorax
8.13.7.3 Atelectasis
8.13.7.4 Bronchiectasis
8.13.8 Acute respiratory distress syndrome
8.13.8.1 Manifestations of ARDS
8.13.8.2 Treatment of ARDS
8.13.9 Respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn
8.13.9.1 Manifestations of respiratory distress syndrome in the newborn
8.13.9.2 Treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in the newborn
8.13.10 Interstitial lung diseases
8.13.10.1 Manifestations of interstitial lung disease
8.13.10.2 Treatment of interstitial lung diseases
8.13.11 Respiratory failure
8.13.11.1 Manifestations of respiratory failure
8.13.11.2 Treatment of respiratory failure
Medical terminology
Bibliography
Chapter 9: The digestive system
9.1 Digestive tract wall
9.1.1 Mucosa
9.1.2 Submucosa
9.1.3 Muscularis externa
9.1.4 Serosa
9.2 Regulation of gastrointestinal function
9.2.1 Intrinsic nerve plexuses
9.2.2 Extrinsic autonomic nerves
9.2.3 Gastrointestinal hormones
9.3 Mouth
9.4 Pharynx
9.5 Esophagus
9.6 Stomach
9.6.1 Gastric motility
9.6.2 Gastric secretion
9.7 Liver
9.8 Gallbladder
9.9 Pancreas
9.10 Transport of bile and pancreatic juice
9.11 Small intestine
9.11.1 Motility of the small intestine
9.11.2 Digestion and absorption in the small intestine
9.11.3 Carbohydrates
9.11.4 Proteins
9.11.5 Lipids
9.11.6 Water and electrolytes
9.12 Large intestine
9.12.1 Motility of the large intestine
9.12.2 Secretion of the large intestine
9.13 Gastrointestinal disorders
9.13.1 Abnormalities of the esophagus
9.13.1.1 Swallowing disorders—dysphagia
9.13.1.2 Manifestations of GERD
9.13.1.3 Treatment of GERD
9.13.2 Disorders of the stomach
9.13.2.1 Gastritis
9.13.2.2 Peptic ulcers
9.13.3 Disorders of the intestines
9.13.3.1 Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
9.13.3.2 Inflammatory bowel disease
9.13.4 Disorders of intestinal motility and absorption
9.13.4.1 Diarrhea
9.13.4.2 Constipation
9.13.4.3 Intestinal malabsorption
9.13.5 Gastrointestinal cancers
9.13.5.1 Esophageal cancer
9.13.5.2 Stomach cancer
9.13.5.3 Colorectal cancer
9.14 Hepatobiliary disorders
9.14.1 Tests of liver function
9.14.2 Infectious disease of the liver
9.14.2.1 Viral hepatitis
9.14.3 Alcoholic liver disease
9.14.4 Cirrhosis
9.14.4.1 Manifestations of cirrhosis and liver failure
9.14.4.2 Treatment of cirrhosis
9.14.5 Liver cancer
9.14.6 Disorders of the gallbladder
9.14.6.1 Gallstone formation (Cholelithiasis)
9.14.6.2 Cholecystitis
9.14.7 Disorders of the pancreas
9.14.7.1 Pancreatitis
9.14.7.2 Pancreatic cancer
9.14.7.3 Clinical manifestations of pancreatic cancer
Medical terminology
Bibliography
Chapter 10: The renal system
10.1 Functional anatomy of the kidneys
10.1.1 Vascular component
10.1.2 Tubular component
10.2 Basic renal processes
10.3 Glomerular filtration
10.3.1 Filtration barrier
10.3.2 Determinants of filtration
10.4 Tubular reabsorption
10.4.1 Sodium reabsorption
10.4.2 Chloride reabsorption
10.4.3 Water reabsorption
10.4.4 Production of urine of varying concentrations
10.4.5 Potassium ion secretion
10.4.6 Hydrogen ion secretion
10.5 Plasma clearance
10.6 Renal blood flow
10.6.1 Autoregulation
10.6.2 Myogenic mechanism
10.6.3 Tubuloglomerular feedback
10.6.4 Resistance of the afferent arteriole
10.6.5 Sympathetic nerves
10.6.6 Angiotensin II
10.6.7 Prostaglandins
10.7 Control of sodium excretion
10.8 Control of water excretion
10.9 Disorders of the kidney and urinary tract
10.9.1 Evaluation of renal function
10.9.2 Disorders of the glomerulus
10.9.2.1 Acute glomerulonephritis
10.9.2.2 Rapidly progressing glomerulonephritis
10.9.2.3 IgA nephropathy (Berger’s disease)
10.9.3 Nephrotic syndrome
10.9.4 Pyelonephritis
10.9.5 Urinary tract infections
10.9.5.1 Manifestations of urinary tract infection
10.9.5.2 Treatment of urinary tract infection
10.9.6 Renal calculi (kidney stones)
10.9.6.1 Manifestations of renal calculi
10.9.6.2 Diagnosis of renal calculi
10.9.6.3 Treatment of renal calculi
10.9.7 Renal tumors
10.9.7.1 Manifestations of renal tumors
10.9.7.2 Treatment of renal tumors
10.9.8 Polycystic kidney disease
10.9.8.1 Manifestations of polycystic kidney disease
10.9.8.2 Treatment of polycystic kidney disease
10.9.9 Renal failure
10.9.9.1 Acute renal failure
10.9.9.2 Manifestations of acute renal failure
10.9.9.3 Treatment of acute renal failure
10.9.10 Chronic renal failure
10.9.10.1 Manifestations of chronic renal failure
10.9.10.2 Treatment of renal failure
10.10 Disorders of the bladder and urethra
10.10.1 Urine reflux
10.10.2 Neurogenic bladder
10.10.3 Urinary incontinence
10.10.3.1 Treatment of overactive bladder
10.10.4 Bladder cancer
Medical terminology
Bibliography
Chapter 11: The endocrine system
11.1 Biochemical classification of hormones
11.2 Transport of hormones
11.3 Functional classification of hormones
11.4 Hormone interactions
11.5 Mechanisms of hormone action
11.6 The pituitary gland
11.7 Relationship between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland
11.8 Negative feedback control
11.9 Neurohypophysis
11.9.1 Antidiuretic hormone
11.9.2 Oxytocin
11.10 Adenohypophysis
11.10.1 Gonadotropins
11.10.2 Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
11.10.3 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
11.10.4 Prolactin
11.10.5 Growth hormone (GH)
11.11 Thyroid gland
11.11.1 Thyroid hormones
11.11.2 Calcitonin
11.12 Parathyroid glands
11.13 Adrenal glands
11.13.1 Adrenal medulla
11.13.2 Adrenal cortex
11.13.3 Mineralocorticoids
11.13.4 Glucocorticoids
11.13.5 Adrenal androgens
11.14 Pancreas
11.14.1 Insulin
11.14.2 Glucagon
11.15 Endocrine disorders
11.15.1 Abnormalities of the hypothalamus/pituitary glands
11.15.1.1 Hypopituitarism
11.15.2 Disorders of the anterior pituitary gland
11.15.2.1 Alterations of growth hormone secretion
11.15.3 Disorders of the posterior pituitary
11.15.3.1 Syndrome of inappropriate ADH (SIADH)
11.15.3.2 Diabetes insipidus
11.15.4 Alteration of thyroid function
11.15.4.1 Tests of thyroid function
11.15.4.2 Hypothyroidism
11.15.4.3 Hyperthyroidism
11.15.5 Disorders of the adrenal glands
11.15.5.1 Hyposecretion of adrenal hormones
11.15.6 Disorders of the adrenal medulla
11.15.6.1 Pheochromocytoma
11.15.6.2 Diagnosis of pheochromocytoma
11.15.6.3 Manifestations of pheochromocytoma
11.15.6.4 Treatment of pheochromocytoma
11.16 Diabetes
11.16.1 The endocrine pancreas
11.16.2 Diabetes mellitus
11.16.2.1 Types of diabetes
11.16.2.2 Type 1 diabetes
11.16.3 Long-term complications of diabetes
11.16.3.1 Diabetic neuropathy
11.16.3.2 Diabetic nephropathy
11.16.3.3 Vascular disease
11.16.3.4 Diabetic retinopathy
11.16.3.5 Impaired healing and increased infections risk
11.16.3.6 Increased risk of infection
11.16.4 Diabetes in pregnancy
11.16.4.1 Gestational diabetes
Medical terminology
Bibliography
Chapter 12: The reproductive system
12.1 Gametogenesis
12.1.1 Spermatogenesis
12.1.2 Oogenesis
12.2 Male reproductive system
12.2.1 Testes
12.2.2 Epididymides
12.2.3 Vas deferens
12.2.4 Ejaculatory ducts
12.2.5 Penis
12.2.6 Prostate
12.2.7 Seminal vesicles
12.2.8 Bulbourethral glands
12.3 Female reproductive system
12.3.1 Ovaries
12.3.2 Fallopian tubes
12.3.3 Uterus
12.3.4 Vagina
12.3.5 Follicular phase
12.3.6 Luteal phase
12.3.7 Hormonal regulation of the ovarian cycle
12.4 Disorders of the male reproductive system
12.4.1 Disorders of the penis
12.4.1.1 Peyronie’s disease
12.4.1.2 Priapism
12.4.1.3 Impotence
12.4.2 Disorders of the testis and scrotum
12.4.2.1 Spermatocele
12.4.2.2 Varicocele
12.4.2.3 Testicular cancer
12.4.3 Disorders of the prostate
12.4.3.1 Prostatitis
12.4.3.2 Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
12.4.3.3 Prostate cancer
12.5 Disorders of the female reproductive system
12.5.1 Disorders of the vagina, cervix, and uterus
12.5.1.1 Vaginitis
12.5.1.2 Cervical lesions and cervical cancer
12.5.1.3 Endometriosis
12.5.1.4 Endometrial (Uterine) cancer
12.5.1.5 Uterine fibroids
12.5.1.6 Uterine prolapse
12.5.2 Disorders of the ovaries
12.5.2.1 Polycystic ovary syndrome
12.5.2.2 Ovarian cancer
12.5.3 Menstrual disorders
12.5.3.1 Amenorrhea
12.5.3.2 Dysmenorrhea
12.5.3.3 Menopause
12.5.3.4 Symptoms
12.5.3.5 Treatment
12.5.4 Disorders of the breast
12.5.4.1 Mastitis
12.5.4.2 Fibrocystic changes
12.5.4.3 Proliferative changes
12.5.5 Breast cancer
12.5.5.1 Risk factors for breast cancer
12.5.5.2 Diagnosis
12.5.5.3 Treatment
12.5.5.4 Prognosis
12.6 Sexually transmitted diseases
12.6.1 Diagnosis
12.6.2 Risk factors
12.6.2.1 Bacterial STDs
12.6.2.2 Viral STDs
12.6.2.3 Other STDs
12.6.2.4 Long-term consequences of STDs
Medical terminology
Bibliography
Chapter 13: The nervous system
13.1 Neurons
13.2 Level of CNS function
13.3 The brain
13.4 Blood-brain barrier
13.5 Cerebrospinal fluid
13.6 The spinal cord
13.6.1 Functions of the spinal cord
13.6.1.1 Composition of the spinal cord
13.6.1.2 Ascending tracts
13.6.1.3 Descending tracts
13.6.2 Spinal reflexes
13.6.2.1 Withdrawal reflex
13.6.2.2 Crossed-extensor reflex
13.7 Disorders of the nervous system
13.7.1 Disorders of the brain
13.7.1.1 Brain injury
13.7.1.2 Traumatic brain injury
13.7.1.3 Intracranial hematoma
13.7.1.4 Increased intracranial pressure
13.7.1.5 Symptoms of increased ICP
13.7.1.6 Treatment of increased ICP
13.7.1.7 Brain ischemia and hypoxia
13.7.1.8 Causes of brain ischemia or hypoxia
13.7.1.9 Manifestations of cerebral ischemia or hypoxia
13.7.2 Stroke
13.7.2.1 Symptoms of stroke
13.7.2.2 Complications of stroke
13.7.2.3 Diagnosis of stroke
13.7.2.4 Treatment of stroke
13.7.3 CNS infections
13.7.3.1 Manifestations of CNS infections
13.7.3.2 Diagnosis of CNS infections
13.7.3.3 Treatment of CNS infections
13.7.4 CNS tumors
13.7.4.1 Type of CNS tumors
13.7.4.2 Manifestations of CNS tumors
13.7.4.3 Diagnosis of CNS tumors
13.7.4.4 Treatment of CNS tumors
13.7.5 Seizure disorders
13.7.5.1 Epilepsy
13.7.5.2 Type of seizures
13.7.5.3 Focal seizures
13.7.5.4 Generalized seizures
13.7.5.5 Diagnosis of seizure disorders
13.7.5.6 Treatment of seizure disorders
13.7.6 Headache
13.7.6.1 Primary headaches
13.7.6.2 Secondary headaches
13.7.7 Degenerative disorders of the brain and CNS
13.7.7.1 Parkinson’s disease
13.7.7.2 Alzheimer’s disease
13.7.7.3 Huntington’s disease
13.7.7.4 Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
13.7.7.5 Multiple sclerosis
13.7.8 Spinal injury
13.7.8.1 Manifestations of spinal cord injury
13.7.8.2 Treatment of spinal cord injury
Medical terminology
Bibliography
Chapter 14: The autonomic nervous system
14.1 Regulation
14.2 Pathways
14.3 Divisions
14.4 Neurotransmission
14.5 Receptors
14.6 Functions
Medical terminology
Bibliography
Chapter 15: Pain
15.1 Nociceptors
15.2 Hyperalgesia
15.3 Neurotransmission
15.4 Pain pathways
15.5 Types of pain
15.5.1 Tissue ischemia
15.5.2 Muscle spasm
15.5.3 Visceral pain
15.5.4 Referred pain
15.6 Treatment of pain
15.6.1 Nonnarcotic analgesics
15.6.2 Opioid analgesics
15.6.3 Adjuvant analgesics
Medical terminology
Bibliography
Chapter 16: Muscle
16.1 Smooth muscle
16.1.1 Structure of smooth muscle
16.1.2 Calcium and the mechanism of contraction
16.1.3 Smooth muscle contraction is slow and prolonged
16.1.4 Types of smooth muscle
16.1.5 Factors influencing the contractile activity of smooth muscle
16.1.6 Length–tension relationship
16.1.7 Hyperplasia
16.2 Skeletal muscle
16.2.1 Muscle tension and movement
16.2.1.1 Isometric versus isotonic contraction
16.2.2 Structure of skeletal muscle
16.2.2.1 Sarcomeres
16.2.2.2 Thick filaments
16.2.2.3 Thin filaments
16.2.3 Neuromuscular junction
16.2.4 Mechanism of contraction
16.2.4.1 Sources of ATP for muscle contraction
16.2.5 Muscle fatigue
16.2.6 Oxygen debt
16.2.7 Types of muscle fibers
16.2.8 Muscle mechanics
16.2.8.1 Number of muscle fibers contracting
16.2.8.2 Amount of tension developed by each contracting muscle fiber
16.3 Disorders of skeletal muscle
16.3.1 Metabolic disorders of skeletal muscle
16.3.1.1 McArdle’s disease
16.3.1.2 Pompei disease
16.3.2 Cerebral palsy
16.3.2.1 Symptoms
16.3.2.2 Treatment
16.3.3 Muscular dystrophy (MD)
16.3.3.1 Duchenne muscular dystrophy
16.3.3.2 Becker muscular dystrophy
16.3.3.3 Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy
16.3.3.4 Limb girdle muscular dystrophy
16.3.4 Myasthenia gravis
16.3.4.1 Symptoms
16.3.4.2 Diagnosis
16.3.4.3 Treatment
Medical terminology
Bibliography
Chapter 17: The skeletal system
17.1 Bone as a tissue and an organ
17.2 Hemopoiesis
17.2.1 Erythropoiesis
17.2.2 Thrombopoiesis
17.2.3 Leukopoiesis
17.3 Mineral deposition
17.4 Mineral resorption
17.5 Calcium homeostasis
17.6 Disorders of the skeletal system
17.6.1 Osteoporosis
17.6.1.1 Manifestations of osteoporosis
17.6.1.2 Diagnosis of osteoporosis
17.6.1.3 Treatment of osteoporosis
17.6.2 Paget’s disease
17.6.2.1 Clinical manifestations of Paget’s disease
17.6.3 Osteomalacia
17.6.3.1 Clinical manifestations of osteomalacia
17.6.4 Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
17.6.4.1 Manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis
17.6.4.2 Diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis
17.6.4.3 Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis
17.6.5 Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
17.6.5.1 Manifestations of SLE
17.6.5.2 Diagnosis and treatment of SLE
17.6.6 Ankylosing spondylitis
17.6.7 Osteoarthritis
17.6.7.1 Manifestations of OA
17.6.7.2 Treatment of OA
17.6.8 Gout
17.6.8.1 Manifestations of gout
17.6.8.2 Treatment of gout
Chapter 18: Cancer
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Cancer terminology
18.2.1 Specific nomenclature examples
18.3 Theories of oncogenesis
18.3.1 Mutation of DNA
18.3.2 Hereditary
18.4 Local effects of cancer
18.5 Systemic effects of cancer
18.6 Tumor staging
18.7 Cancer detection
18.7.1 Tumor cell markers
18.7.2 Tumor grading
18.7.3 Visualization
18.7.4 Biopsy
18.8 Rationale for cancer therapy
18.8.1 Treatment of cancer
18.8.2 Hormonal therapy
18.8.3 Radiation therapy
18.8.4 Immune-based therapies (“biologic response modifiers”)
Chapter 19: HIV
19.1 Introduction
19.2 HIV structure and lifecycle
19.3 Stages in an HIV infection
19.3.1 Acute illness stage
19.3.2 Asymptomatic stage
19.3.3 Symptomatic or AIDS stage
19.4 Epidemiology of HIV infection
19.5 Laboratory of diagnosis of HIV
19.6 Rationale for treatment of HIV
19.6.1 Treatment of HIV
Index

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