Essentials of Human Physiology and Pathophysiology for Pharmacy and Allied Health


Download Essentials of Human Physiology and Pathophysiology for Pharmacy and Allied Health written by Laurie K. McCorry, Martin M. Zdanowicz in PDF format. This book is under the category Medicine and bearing the isbn/isbn13 number 367000482/9780367000486. You may reffer the table below for additional details of the book.

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Combining two separate textbooks entitled Essentials of Human Physiology for Pharmacy and Essentials of Pathophysiology for Pharmacy into one cohesive volume; this new ebook seamlessly integrates material related to normal human physiology and pathophysiology into each chapter.

Chapters include:

  • An emphasis on the rationale for drug therapy;
  • Study objectives at the beginning of each chapter;
  • Summary tables; diagrams; flow charts; and key definitions;
  • Real-life case studies to emphasize clinical application and stimulate student critical thinking;

Simple; straightforward language. Written by authors with extensive teaching experience in the areas; Essentials of Human Physiology and Pathophysiology for Pharmacy and Allied Health (PDF) is a concise learning instrument that will guide students in pharmacy and allied health programs.

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Laurie K. McCorry, Martin M. Zdanowicz


Routledge; 1st edition




780 pages









Table of contents

Table of contents :
Half Title
Title Page
Copyright Page
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: The cell
1.1 Plasma membrane
1.1.1 Structure and function of the plasma membrane
1.1.2 Membrane transport
1.2 Membrane potential
1.2.1 Development of the resting membrane potential
1.3 Electrical signals
1.3.1 Graded potentials
1.3.2 Action potentials
1.3.3 Conduction of the action potential
1.4 Synaptic transmission
1.4.1 Chemical synapses
1.4.2 Summation
1.4.3 Interconnections between neurons
1.4.4 Factors affecting synaptic transmission Altered release of a neurotransmitter Altered interaction of a neurotransmitter with its receptor Altered removal of a neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft Replacement of a deficient neurotransmitter
1.5 Cell injury
1.5.1 Cellular adaptation
1.5.2 Mechanisms of cell injury
1.5.3 Manifestations of cellular injury
1.5.4 Cell death
1.5.5 Tissue repair
1.5.6 Steps in tissue (wound) repair
Medical terminology
Chapter 2: Homeostasis
2.1 Homeostasis
2.1.1 Negative feedback
2.1.2 Positive feedback
Medical terminology
Chapter 3: The immune system
3.1 Overview of immune function
3.1.1 Agents of infectious disease
3.1.2 Effector cells of the immune system
3.1.3 Immune responses
3.1.4 Innate immune system
3.1.5 Adaptive immune system Classification of antibodies Structure of antibodies Actions of antibodies Clonal selection theory Primary versus secondary responses Active versus passive immunity Types of T cells Actions of T cells MHC molecules
3.2 Alterations in immune function
3.2.1 Hypersensitivity reactions Type I hypersensitivity reaction Type II hypersensitivity reaction Type III hypersensitivity reaction Type IV hypersensitivity reaction
3.2.2 Autoimmune disease
Medical terminology
Chapter 4: Inflammation
4.1 Inflammatory mediators
4.1.1 Histamine and mast cells
Chapter 5: Blood and hemostasis
5.1 Blood
5.1.1 Plasma
5.1.2 Erythrocytes
5.1.3 Leukocytes
5.1.4 Platelets
5.2 Hemostasis
5.3 Alterations in hemostasis
5.3.1 Conditions associated with decreased coagulation Hemophilia von Willebrand disease Vitamin K deficiency Liver disease
5.3.2 Conditions affecting platelets Thrombocytopenia Immune thrombocytopenia purpura Antiphospholipid syndrome
5.3.3 Conditions leading to increased blood coagulation (hypercoagulability)
5.3.4 Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) Manifestations of DIC Treatment of DIC
5.4 Alterations in hematologic function and oxygen transport
5.4.1 Hematopoiesis
5.4.2 Anemia General manifestations of anemia
5.4.3 Types of anemia Hemolytic anemia Blood loss anemia
5.4.4 Inherited anemia Sickle cell disease Thalassemia Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency Aplastic anemia Polycythemia
Medical terminology
Chapter 6: The circulatory system
6.1 Blood vessels
6.2 Blood pressure
6.3 Blood flow
6.4 Regulation of arterial pressure
6.4.1 Vasomotor center
6.4.2 Baroreceptors
6.4.3 Chemoreceptors
6.4.4 Low-pressure receptors
6.4.5 Vasoconstrictors
6.4.6 Vasodilators
6.5 Venous regulation
6.5.1 Blood volume
6.5.2 Sympathetic stimulation of the veins
6.5.3 Skeletal muscle activity
6.5.4 Respiratory activity
6.6 Effects of gravity on the circulation
6.7 Regulation of blood flow through tissues
6.7.1 Active hyperemia
6.7.2 Autoregulation
6.8 Effects of acute exercise on the circulatory system
6.9 Capillary exchange
6.10 Disease of blood vessels
6.10.1 Arterial disease
6.10.2 Atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia
6.10.3 Inflammatory disease of arteries
6.10.4 Aneurysm Clinical manifestations of aneurysm Treatment of aneurysms
6.10.5 Disease of the veins Venous thrombosis Embolism Anticoagulant and thrombolytic drug therapy Varicose veins Chronic venous insufficiency
6.11 Disorders of blood pressure
6.11.1 Primary (Essential) hypertension
6.11.2 Secondary hypertension
6.11.3 Malignant hypertension
6.11.4 Hypertension in pregnancy
6.11.5 Effects of chronic hypertension
6.11.6 Diagnosis and treatment of essential hypertension
6.11.7 Treatment of hypertension
6.11.8 Hypotension Manifestations of hypotension Treatment of hypotension
6.12 Shock
6.12.1 Hypovolemic shock Physiologic responses to hypovolemic shock Stages of symptoms of hypovolemic shock Treatment of hypovolemic shock
6.12.2 Distributive shock Symptoms of distributive shock Treatment of distributive shock
6.12.3 Cardiogenic shock Symptoms of cardiogenic shock Treatment of cardiogenic shock
6.12.4 Complications of shock
Medical terminology
Chapter 7: The heart
7.1 Functional anatomy of the heart
7.1.1 Myocardial wall
7.2 Electrical activity of the heart
7.3 Electrocardiogram
7.4 Cardiac cycle
7.4.1 Ventricular filling
7.4.2 Isovolumetric contraction
7.4.3 Ejection
7.4.4 Isovolumetric relaxation
7.5 Cardiac output
7.6 Control of heart rate
7.7 Control of stroke volume
7.8 Effect of exercise on cardiac output
7.9 Diseases of the heart
7.9.1 Disorders of the pericardium, myocardium, and endocardium Disorders of the pericardium
7.9.2 Diseases of the myocardium Myocarditis Cardiomyopathies
7.9.3 Disorders of the endocardium and heart valves Infectious endocarditis Rheumatic heart disease
7.9.4 Disorders of the heart valves Mitral valve prolapse Congenital heart defects
7.10 Myocardial ischemia
7.10.1 Manifestations of myocardial ischemia
7.10.2 Acute coronary syndromes Rational for treatment of myocardial ischemia Treatment of myocardial ischemia
7.11 Myocardial infarction
7.11.1 Coronary blood flow and myocardial infarction
7.11.2 Clinical manifestations of myocardial infarction
7.11.3 Compensatory mechanisms for myocardial infarction
7.11.4 Complications of myocardial infarction
7.11.5 Rationale for therapy Treatment for myocardial infarction
7.12 Heart failure
7.12.1 Classification of heart failure
7.12.2 Left heart failure Manifestations of left-heart failure
7.12.3 Right heart failure Manifestations of right-heart failure
7.12.4 Physiologic compensation for heart failure
7.12.5 Diagnosis of heart failure
7.12.6 Rationale for treatment of heart failure
7.13 Cardiac arrhythmia
7.13.1 Factors that may contribute to the development of a cardiac arrhythmia
7.13.2 Inherited arrhythmias
7.13.3 Mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia
7.13.4 Types of arrhythmia Sinus node arrhythmia Atrial arrhythmia Ventricular arrhythmia
7.13.5 Heart block First-degree heart block Second-degree heart block Third-degree heart block Stokes-Adams syndrome Bundle branch block
7.13.6 Diagnosis of arrhythmia
7.13.7 Rationale for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmia
7.13.8 Treatment of cardiac arrhythmia Pharmacologic Non-pharmacologic treatment of arrhythmia
Medical terminology
Chapter 8: The respiratory system
8.1 Blood-gas interface
8.2 Airways
8.2.1 Cartilage
8.2.2 Epithelium
8.3 The pleura
8.4 Mechanics of breathing
8.4.1 Thoracic volume
8.4.2 Inspiration
8.4.3 Expiration
8.4.4 Lung volume
8.4.5 Pulmonary pressures
8.5 Interdependence
8.6 Airway resistance
8.6.1 Lung volume
8.6.2 Airway obstruction
8.6.3 Bronchial smooth muscle tone
8.7 Ventilation
8.7.1 Standard lung volumes
8.7.2 Total ventilation
8.7.3 Alveolar ventilation
8.7.4 Dead space
8.8 Diffusion
8.9 Partial pressures
8.10 Gas transport
8.10.1 Transport of oxygen
8.10.2 Factors affecting the transport of oxygen
8.10.3 Transport of carbon dioxide
8.11 Regulation of ventilation
8.11.1 Chemoreceptor response to decreased arterial PO2
8.11.2 Chemoreceptor response to increased arterial PCO2 Chemoreceptor response to increased arterial hydrogen ion concentration
8.12 Ventilatory response to exercise
8.13 Disorders of the respiratory system
8.13.1 Respiratory infections Infections of the upper respiratory tract Infections of the lower respiratory tract
8.13.2 Cancers of the respiratory tract Laryngeal cancer Lung cancer
8.13.3 Obstructive and restrictive pulmonary disorders
8.13.4 Obstructive pulmonary disorders Asthma
8.13.5 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Bronchitis Emphysema
8.13.6 Cystic fibrosis Manifestations of cystic fibrosis Diagnosis of cystic fibrosis Treatment of cystic fibrosis
8.13.7 Restrictive pulmonary disorders Pleuritis, pleural effusion Pneumothorax Atelectasis Bronchiectasis
8.13.8 Acute respiratory distress syndrome Manifestations of ARDS Treatment of ARDS
8.13.9 Respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn Manifestations of respiratory distress syndrome in the newborn Treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in the newborn
8.13.10 Interstitial lung diseases Manifestations of interstitial lung disease Treatment of interstitial lung diseases
8.13.11 Respiratory failure Manifestations of respiratory failure Treatment of respiratory failure
Medical terminology
Chapter 9: The digestive system
9.1 Digestive tract wall
9.1.1 Mucosa
9.1.2 Submucosa
9.1.3 Muscularis externa
9.1.4 Serosa
9.2 Regulation of gastrointestinal function
9.2.1 Intrinsic nerve plexuses
9.2.2 Extrinsic autonomic nerves
9.2.3 Gastrointestinal hormones
9.3 Mouth
9.4 Pharynx
9.5 Esophagus
9.6 Stomach
9.6.1 Gastric motility
9.6.2 Gastric secretion
9.7 Liver
9.8 Gallbladder
9.9 Pancreas
9.10 Transport of bile and pancreatic juice
9.11 Small intestine
9.11.1 Motility of the small intestine
9.11.2 Digestion and absorption in the small intestine
9.11.3 Carbohydrates
9.11.4 Proteins
9.11.5 Lipids
9.11.6 Water and electrolytes
9.12 Large intestine
9.12.1 Motility of the large intestine
9.12.2 Secretion of the large intestine
9.13 Gastrointestinal disorders
9.13.1 Abnormalities of the esophagus Swallowing disorders—dysphagia Manifestations of GERD Treatment of GERD
9.13.2 Disorders of the stomach Gastritis Peptic ulcers
9.13.3 Disorders of the intestines Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) Inflammatory bowel disease
9.13.4 Disorders of intestinal motility and absorption Diarrhea Constipation Intestinal malabsorption
9.13.5 Gastrointestinal cancers Esophageal cancer Stomach cancer Colorectal cancer
9.14 Hepatobiliary disorders
9.14.1 Tests of liver function
9.14.2 Infectious disease of the liver Viral hepatitis
9.14.3 Alcoholic liver disease
9.14.4 Cirrhosis Manifestations of cirrhosis and liver failure Treatment of cirrhosis
9.14.5 Liver cancer
9.14.6 Disorders of the gallbladder Gallstone formation (Cholelithiasis) Cholecystitis
9.14.7 Disorders of the pancreas Pancreatitis Pancreatic cancer Clinical manifestations of pancreatic cancer
Medical terminology
Chapter 10: The renal system
10.1 Functional anatomy of the kidneys
10.1.1 Vascular component
10.1.2 Tubular component
10.2 Basic renal processes
10.3 Glomerular filtration
10.3.1 Filtration barrier
10.3.2 Determinants of filtration
10.4 Tubular reabsorption
10.4.1 Sodium reabsorption
10.4.2 Chloride reabsorption
10.4.3 Water reabsorption
10.4.4 Production of urine of varying concentrations
10.4.5 Potassium ion secretion
10.4.6 Hydrogen ion secretion
10.5 Plasma clearance
10.6 Renal blood flow
10.6.1 Autoregulation
10.6.2 Myogenic mechanism
10.6.3 Tubuloglomerular feedback
10.6.4 Resistance of the afferent arteriole
10.6.5 Sympathetic nerves
10.6.6 Angiotensin II
10.6.7 Prostaglandins
10.7 Control of sodium excretion
10.8 Control of water excretion
10.9 Disorders of the kidney and urinary tract
10.9.1 Evaluation of renal function
10.9.2 Disorders of the glomerulus Acute glomerulonephritis Rapidly progressing glomerulonephritis IgA nephropathy (Berger’s disease)
10.9.3 Nephrotic syndrome
10.9.4 Pyelonephritis
10.9.5 Urinary tract infections Manifestations of urinary tract infection Treatment of urinary tract infection
10.9.6 Renal calculi (kidney stones) Manifestations of renal calculi Diagnosis of renal calculi Treatment of renal calculi
10.9.7 Renal tumors Manifestations of renal tumors Treatment of renal tumors
10.9.8 Polycystic kidney disease Manifestations of polycystic kidney disease Treatment of polycystic kidney disease
10.9.9 Renal failure Acute renal failure Manifestations of acute renal failure Treatment of acute renal failure
10.9.10 Chronic renal failure Manifestations of chronic renal failure Treatment of renal failure
10.10 Disorders of the bladder and urethra
10.10.1 Urine reflux
10.10.2 Neurogenic bladder
10.10.3 Urinary incontinence Treatment of overactive bladder
10.10.4 Bladder cancer
Medical terminology
Chapter 11: The endocrine system
11.1 Biochemical classification of hormones
11.2 Transport of hormones
11.3 Functional classification of hormones
11.4 Hormone interactions
11.5 Mechanisms of hormone action
11.6 The pituitary gland
11.7 Relationship between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland
11.8 Negative feedback control
11.9 Neurohypophysis
11.9.1 Antidiuretic hormone
11.9.2 Oxytocin
11.10 Adenohypophysis
11.10.1 Gonadotropins
11.10.2 Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
11.10.3 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
11.10.4 Prolactin
11.10.5 Growth hormone (GH)
11.11 Thyroid gland
11.11.1 Thyroid hormones
11.11.2 Calcitonin
11.12 Parathyroid glands
11.13 Adrenal glands
11.13.1 Adrenal medulla
11.13.2 Adrenal cortex
11.13.3 Mineralocorticoids
11.13.4 Glucocorticoids
11.13.5 Adrenal androgens
11.14 Pancreas
11.14.1 Insulin
11.14.2 Glucagon
11.15 Endocrine disorders
11.15.1 Abnormalities of the hypothalamus/pituitary glands Hypopituitarism
11.15.2 Disorders of the anterior pituitary gland Alterations of growth hormone secretion
11.15.3 Disorders of the posterior pituitary Syndrome of inappropriate ADH (SIADH) Diabetes insipidus
11.15.4 Alteration of thyroid function Tests of thyroid function Hypothyroidism Hyperthyroidism
11.15.5 Disorders of the adrenal glands Hyposecretion of adrenal hormones
11.15.6 Disorders of the adrenal medulla Pheochromocytoma Diagnosis of pheochromocytoma Manifestations of pheochromocytoma Treatment of pheochromocytoma
11.16 Diabetes
11.16.1 The endocrine pancreas
11.16.2 Diabetes mellitus Types of diabetes Type 1 diabetes
11.16.3 Long-term complications of diabetes Diabetic neuropathy Diabetic nephropathy Vascular disease Diabetic retinopathy Impaired healing and increased infections risk Increased risk of infection
11.16.4 Diabetes in pregnancy Gestational diabetes
Medical terminology
Chapter 12: The reproductive system
12.1 Gametogenesis
12.1.1 Spermatogenesis
12.1.2 Oogenesis
12.2 Male reproductive system
12.2.1 Testes
12.2.2 Epididymides
12.2.3 Vas deferens
12.2.4 Ejaculatory ducts
12.2.5 Penis
12.2.6 Prostate
12.2.7 Seminal vesicles
12.2.8 Bulbourethral glands
12.3 Female reproductive system
12.3.1 Ovaries
12.3.2 Fallopian tubes
12.3.3 Uterus
12.3.4 Vagina
12.3.5 Follicular phase
12.3.6 Luteal phase
12.3.7 Hormonal regulation of the ovarian cycle
12.4 Disorders of the male reproductive system
12.4.1 Disorders of the penis Peyronie’s disease Priapism Impotence
12.4.2 Disorders of the testis and scrotum Spermatocele Varicocele Testicular cancer
12.4.3 Disorders of the prostate Prostatitis Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) Prostate cancer
12.5 Disorders of the female reproductive system
12.5.1 Disorders of the vagina, cervix, and uterus Vaginitis Cervical lesions and cervical cancer Endometriosis Endometrial (Uterine) cancer Uterine fibroids Uterine prolapse
12.5.2 Disorders of the ovaries Polycystic ovary syndrome Ovarian cancer
12.5.3 Menstrual disorders Amenorrhea Dysmenorrhea Menopause Symptoms Treatment
12.5.4 Disorders of the breast Mastitis Fibrocystic changes Proliferative changes
12.5.5 Breast cancer Risk factors for breast cancer Diagnosis Treatment Prognosis
12.6 Sexually transmitted diseases
12.6.1 Diagnosis
12.6.2 Risk factors Bacterial STDs Viral STDs Other STDs Long-term consequences of STDs
Medical terminology
Chapter 13: The nervous system
13.1 Neurons
13.2 Level of CNS function
13.3 The brain
13.4 Blood-brain barrier
13.5 Cerebrospinal fluid
13.6 The spinal cord
13.6.1 Functions of the spinal cord Composition of the spinal cord Ascending tracts Descending tracts
13.6.2 Spinal reflexes Withdrawal reflex Crossed-extensor reflex
13.7 Disorders of the nervous system
13.7.1 Disorders of the brain Brain injury Traumatic brain injury Intracranial hematoma Increased intracranial pressure Symptoms of increased ICP Treatment of increased ICP Brain ischemia and hypoxia Causes of brain ischemia or hypoxia Manifestations of cerebral ischemia or hypoxia
13.7.2 Stroke Symptoms of stroke Complications of stroke Diagnosis of stroke Treatment of stroke
13.7.3 CNS infections Manifestations of CNS infections Diagnosis of CNS infections Treatment of CNS infections
13.7.4 CNS tumors Type of CNS tumors Manifestations of CNS tumors Diagnosis of CNS tumors Treatment of CNS tumors
13.7.5 Seizure disorders Epilepsy Type of seizures Focal seizures Generalized seizures Diagnosis of seizure disorders Treatment of seizure disorders
13.7.6 Headache Primary headaches Secondary headaches
13.7.7 Degenerative disorders of the brain and CNS Parkinson’s disease Alzheimer’s disease Huntington’s disease Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Multiple sclerosis
13.7.8 Spinal injury Manifestations of spinal cord injury Treatment of spinal cord injury
Medical terminology
Chapter 14: The autonomic nervous system
14.1 Regulation
14.2 Pathways
14.3 Divisions
14.4 Neurotransmission
14.5 Receptors
14.6 Functions
Medical terminology
Chapter 15: Pain
15.1 Nociceptors
15.2 Hyperalgesia
15.3 Neurotransmission
15.4 Pain pathways
15.5 Types of pain
15.5.1 Tissue ischemia
15.5.2 Muscle spasm
15.5.3 Visceral pain
15.5.4 Referred pain
15.6 Treatment of pain
15.6.1 Nonnarcotic analgesics
15.6.2 Opioid analgesics
15.6.3 Adjuvant analgesics
Medical terminology
Chapter 16: Muscle
16.1 Smooth muscle
16.1.1 Structure of smooth muscle
16.1.2 Calcium and the mechanism of contraction
16.1.3 Smooth muscle contraction is slow and prolonged
16.1.4 Types of smooth muscle
16.1.5 Factors influencing the contractile activity of smooth muscle
16.1.6 Length–tension relationship
16.1.7 Hyperplasia
16.2 Skeletal muscle
16.2.1 Muscle tension and movement Isometric versus isotonic contraction
16.2.2 Structure of skeletal muscle Sarcomeres Thick filaments Thin filaments
16.2.3 Neuromuscular junction
16.2.4 Mechanism of contraction Sources of ATP for muscle contraction
16.2.5 Muscle fatigue
16.2.6 Oxygen debt
16.2.7 Types of muscle fibers
16.2.8 Muscle mechanics Number of muscle fibers contracting Amount of tension developed by each contracting muscle fiber
16.3 Disorders of skeletal muscle
16.3.1 Metabolic disorders of skeletal muscle McArdle’s disease Pompei disease
16.3.2 Cerebral palsy Symptoms Treatment
16.3.3 Muscular dystrophy (MD) Duchenne muscular dystrophy Becker muscular dystrophy Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy Limb girdle muscular dystrophy
16.3.4 Myasthenia gravis Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment
Medical terminology
Chapter 17: The skeletal system
17.1 Bone as a tissue and an organ
17.2 Hemopoiesis
17.2.1 Erythropoiesis
17.2.2 Thrombopoiesis
17.2.3 Leukopoiesis
17.3 Mineral deposition
17.4 Mineral resorption
17.5 Calcium homeostasis
17.6 Disorders of the skeletal system
17.6.1 Osteoporosis Manifestations of osteoporosis Diagnosis of osteoporosis Treatment of osteoporosis
17.6.2 Paget’s disease Clinical manifestations of Paget’s disease
17.6.3 Osteomalacia Clinical manifestations of osteomalacia
17.6.4 Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) Manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis Diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis
17.6.5 Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Manifestations of SLE Diagnosis and treatment of SLE
17.6.6 Ankylosing spondylitis
17.6.7 Osteoarthritis Manifestations of OA Treatment of OA
17.6.8 Gout Manifestations of gout Treatment of gout
Chapter 18: Cancer
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Cancer terminology
18.2.1 Specific nomenclature examples
18.3 Theories of oncogenesis
18.3.1 Mutation of DNA
18.3.2 Hereditary
18.4 Local effects of cancer
18.5 Systemic effects of cancer
18.6 Tumor staging
18.7 Cancer detection
18.7.1 Tumor cell markers
18.7.2 Tumor grading
18.7.3 Visualization
18.7.4 Biopsy
18.8 Rationale for cancer therapy
18.8.1 Treatment of cancer
18.8.2 Hormonal therapy
18.8.3 Radiation therapy
18.8.4 Immune-based therapies (“biologic response modifiers”)
Chapter 19: HIV
19.1 Introduction
19.2 HIV structure and lifecycle
19.3 Stages in an HIV infection
19.3.1 Acute illness stage
19.3.2 Asymptomatic stage
19.3.3 Symptomatic or AIDS stage
19.4 Epidemiology of HIV infection
19.5 Laboratory of diagnosis of HIV
19.6 Rationale for treatment of HIV
19.6.1 Treatment of HIV

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