Foundations of Materials Science and Engineering (6th Edition)


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William Smith, Javad Hashemi


McGraw-Hill Higher Education; 6th Edition




1104 pages









Table of contents

Table of contents :
Foundations of Materials Scienceand Engineering
CHAPTER 1: Introduction to Materials Science and Engineering
1.1 Materials and Engineering
1.2 Materials Science and Engineering
1.3 Types of Materials
1.3.1 Metallic Materials
1.3.2 Polymeric Materials
1.3.3 Ceramic Materials
1.3.4 Composite Materials
1.3.5 Electronic Materials
1.4 Competition Among Materials
1.5 Recent Advances in Materials Science and Technology and Future Trends
1.5.1 Smart Materials
1.5.2 Nanomaterials
1.6 Design and Selection
1.7 Summary
1.8 Definitions
1.9 Problems
CHAPTER 2: Atomic Structure and Bonding
2.1 Atomic Structure and Subatomic Particles
2.2 Atomic Numbers, Mass Numbers, and Atomic Masses
2.2.1 Atomic Numbers and Mass Numbers
2.3 The Electronic Structure of Atoms
2.3.1 Planck’s Quantum Theory and Electromagnetic Radiation
2.3.2 Bohr’s Theory of the Hydrogen Atom
2.3.3 The Uncertainty Principle and Schrödinger’s Wave Functions
2.3.4 Quantum Numbers, Energy Levels, and Atomic Orbitals
2.3.5 The Energy State of Multielectron Atoms
2.3.6 The Quantum-Mechanical Model and the Periodic Table
2.4 Periodic Variations in Atomic Size, Ionization Energy, and Electron Affinity
2.4.1 Trends in Atomic Size
2.4.2 Trends in Ionization Energy
2.4.3 Trends in Electron Affinity
2.4.4 Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals
2.5 Primary Bonds
2.5.1 Ionic Bonds
2.5.2 Covalent Bonds
2.5.3 Metallic Bonds
2.5.4 Mixed Bonding
2.6 Secondary Bonds
2.7 Summary
2.8 Definitions
2.9 Problems
CHAPTER 3: Crystal and Amorphous Structure in Materials
3.1 The Space Lattice and Unit Cells
3.2 Crystal Systems and Bravais Lattices
3.3 Principal Metallic Crystal Structures
3.3.1 Body-Centered Cubic (BCC) Crystal Structure
3.3.2 Face-Centered Cubic (FCC) Crystal Structure
3.3.3 Hexagonal Close-Packed (HCP) Crystal Structure
3.4 Atom Positions in Cubic Unit Cells
3.5 Directions in Cubic Unit Cells
3.6 Miller Indices for Crystallographic Planes in Cubic Unit Cells
3.7 Crystallographic Planes and Directions in Hexagonal Crystal Structure
3.7.1 Indices for Crystal Planes in HCP Unit Cells
3.7.2 Direction Indices in HCP Unit Cells
3.8 Comparison of FCC, HCP, and BCC Crystal Structures
3.8.1 FCC and HCP Crystal Structures
3.8.2 BCC Crystal Structure
3.9 Volume, Planar, and Linear Density Unit-Cell Calculations
3.9.1 Volume Density
3.9.2 Planar Atomic Density
3.9.3 Linear Atomic Density and Repeat Distance
3.10 Polymorphism or Allotropy
3.11 Crystal Structure Analysis
3.11.1 X-Ray Sources
3.11.2 X-Ray Diffraction
3.11.3 X-Ray Diffraction Analysis of Crystal Structures
3.12 Amorphous Materials
3.13 Summary
3.14 Definitions
3.15 Problems
CHAPTER 4: Solidification and Crystalline Imperfections
4.1 Solidification of Metals
4.1.1 The Formation of Stable Nuclei in Liquid Metals
4.1.2 Growth of Crystals in Liquid Metal and Formation of a Grain Structure
4.1.3 Grain Structure of Industrial Castings
4.2 Solidification of Single Crystals
4.3 Metallic Solid Solutions
4.3.1 Substitutional Solid Solutions
4.3.2 Interstitial Solid Solutions
4.4 Crystalline Imperfections
4.4.1 Point Defects
4.4.2 Line Defects (Dislocations)
4.4.3 Planar Defects
4.4.4 Volume Defects
4.5 Experimental Techniques for Identification of Microstructure and Defects
4.5.1 Optical Metallography, ASTM Grain Size, and Grain Diameter Determination
4.5.2 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
4.5.3 Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
4.5.4 High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM)
4.5.5 Scanning Probe Microscopes and Atomic Resolution
4.6 Summary
4.7 Definitions
4.8 Problems
CHAPTER 5: Thermally Activated Processes and Diffusion in Solids
5.1 Rate Processes in Solids
5.2 Atomic Diffusion in Solids
5.2.1 Diffusion in Solids in General
5.2.2 Diffusion Mechanisms
5.2.3 Steady-State Diffusion
5.2.4 Non–Steady-State Diffusion
5.3 Industrial Applications of Diffusion Processes
5.3.1 Case Hardening of Steel by Gas Carburizing
5.3.2 Impurity Diffusion into Silicon Wafers for Integrated Circuits
5.4 Effect of Temperature on Diffusion in Solids
5.5 Summary
5.6 Definitions
5.7 Problems
CHAPTER 6: Mechanical Properties of Metals I
6.1 The Processing of Metals and Alloys
6.1.1 The Casting of Metals and Alloys
6.1.2 Hot and Cold Rolling of Metals and Alloys
6.1.3 Extrusion of Metals and Alloys
6.1.4 Forging
6.1.5 Other Metal-Forming Processes
6.2 Stress and Strain in Metals
6.2.1 Elastic and Plastic Deformation
6.2.2 Engineering Stress and Engineering Strain
6.2.3 Poisson’s Ratio
6.2.4 Shear Stress and Shear Strain
6.3 The Tensile Test and The Engineering Stress-Strain Diagram
6.3.1 Mechanical Property Data Obtained from the Tensile Test and the Engineering Stress-Strain Diagram
6.3.2 Comparison of Engineering Stress-Strain Curves for Selected Alloys
6.3.3 True Stress and True Strain
6.4 Hardness and Hardness Testing
6.5 Plastic Deformation of Metal Single Crystals
6.5.1 Slipbands and Slip Lines on the Surface of Metal Crystals
6.5.2 Plastic Deformation in Metal Crystals by the Slip Mechanism
6.5.3 Slip Systems
6.5.4 Critical Resolved Shear Stress for Metal Single Crystals
6.5.5 Schmid’s Law
6.5.6 Twinning
6.6 Plastic Deformation of Polycrystalline Metals
6.6.1 Effect of Grain Boundaries on the Strength of Metals
6.6.2 Effect of Plastic Deformation on Grain Shape and Dislocation Arrangements
6.6.3 Effect of Cold Plastic Deformation on Increasing the Strength of Metals
6.7 Solid-Solution Strengthening of Metals
6.8 Recovery and Recrystallization of Plastically Deformed Metals
6.8.1 Structure of a Heavily Cold-Worked Metal before Reheating
6.8.2 Recovery
6.8.3 Recrystallization
6.9 Superplasticity in Metals
6.10 Nanocrystalline Metals
6.11 Summary
6.12 Definitions
6.13 Problems
CHAPTER 7: Mechanical Properties of Metals II
7.1 Fracture of Metals
7.1.1 Ductile Fracture
7.1.2 Brittle Fracture
7.1.3 Toughness and Impact Testing
7.1.4 Ductile-to-Brittle Transition Temperature
7.1.5 Fracture Toughness
7.2 Fatigue of Metals
7.2.1 Cyclic Stresses
7.2.2 Basic Structural Changes that Occur in a Ductile Metal in the Fatigue Process
7.2.3 Some Major Factors that Affect the Fatigue Strength of a Metal
7.3 Fatigue Crack Propagation Rate
7.3.1 Correlation of Fatigue Crack Propagation with Stress and Crack Length
7.3.2 Fatigue Crack Growth Rate versus Stress-Intensity Factor Range Plots
7.3.3 Fatigue Life Calculations
7.4 Creep and Stress Rupture of Metals
7.4.1 Creep of Metals
7.4.2 The Creep Test
7.4.3 Creep-Rupture Test
7.5 Graphical Representation of Creep- and Stress-Rupture Time-Temperature Data Using the Larsen-Miller Parameter
7.6 A Case Study In Failure of Metallic Components
7.7 Recent Advances and Future Directions in Improving The Mechanical Performance of Metals
7.7.1 Improving Ductility and Strength Simultaneously
7.7.2 Fatigue Behavior in Nanocrystalline Metals
7.8 Summary
7.9 Definitions
7.10 Problems
CHAPTER 8: Phase Diagrams
8.1 Phase Diagrams of Pure Substances
8.2 Gibbs Phase Rule
8.3 Cooling Curves
8.4 Binary Isomorphous Alloy Systems
8.5 The Lever Rule
8.6 Nonequilibrium Solidification of Alloys
8.7 Binary Eutectic Alloy Systems
8.8 Binary Peritectic Alloy Systems
8.9 Binary Monotectic Systems
8.10 Invariant Reactions
8.11 Phase Diagrams with Intermediate Phases and Compounds
8.12 Ternary Phase Diagrams
8.13 Summary
8.14 Definitions
8.15 Problems
CHAPTER 9: Engineering Alloys
9.1 Production of Iron and Steel
9.1.1 Production of Pig Iron in a Blast Furnace
9.1.2 Steelmaking and Processing of Major Steel Product Forms
9.2 The Iron-Carbon System
9.2.1 The Iron–Iron-Carbide Phase Diagram
9.2.2 Solid Phases in the Fe–Fe3C Phase Diagram
9.2.3 Invariant Reactions in the Fe–Fe3C Phase Diagram
9.2.4 Slow Cooling of Plain-Carbon Steels
9.3 Heat Treatment of Plain-Carbon Steels
9.3.1 Martensite
9.3.2 Isothermal Decomposition of Austenite
9.3.3 Continuous-Cooling Transformation Diagram for a Eutectoid Plain-Carbon Steel
9.3.4 Annealing and Normalizing of Plain-Carbon Steels
9.3.5 Tempering of Plain-Carbon Steels
9.3.6 Classification of Plain-Carbon Steels and Typical Mechanical Properties
9.4 Low-Alloy Steels
9.4.1 Classification of Alloy Steels
9.4.2 Distribution of Alloying Elements in Alloy Steels
9.4.3 Effects of Alloying Elements on the Eutectoid Temperature of Steels
9.4.4 Hardenability
9.4.5 Typical Mechanical Properties and Applications for Low-Alloy Steels
9.5 Aluminum Alloys
9.5.1 Precipitation Strengthening (Hardening)
9.5.2 General Properties of Aluminum and Its Production
9.5.3 Wrought Aluminum Alloys
9.5.4 Aluminum Casting Alloys
9.6 Copper Alloys
9.6.1 General Properties of Copper
9.6.2 Production of Copper
9.6.3 Classification of Copper Alloys
9.6.4 Wrought Copper Alloys
9.7 Stainless Steels
9.7.1 Ferritic Stainless Steels
9.7.2 Martensitic Stainless Steels
9.7.3 Austenitic Stainless Steels
9.8 Cast Irons
9.8.1 General Properties
9.8.2 Types of Cast Irons
9.8.3 White Cast Iron
9.8.4 Gray Cast Iron
9.8.5 Ductile Cast Irons
9.8.6 Malleable Cast Irons
9.9 Magnesium, Titanium, and Nickel Alloys
9.9.1 Magnesium Alloys
9.9.2 Titanium Alloys
9.9.3 Nickel Alloys
9.10 Special-Purpose Alloys and Applications
9.10.1 Intermetallics
9.10.2 Shape-Memory Alloys
9.10.3 Amorphous Metals
9.11 Summary
9.12 Definitions
9.13 Problems
CHAPTER 10: Polymeric Materials
10.1 Introduction
10.1.1 Thermoplastics
10.1.2 Thermosetting Plastics (Thermosets)
10.2 Polymerization Reactions
10.2.1 Covalent Bonding Structure of an Ethylene Molecule
10.2.2 Covalent Bonding Structure of an Activated Ethylene Molecule
10.2.3 General Reaction for the Polymerization of Polyethylene and the Degree of Polymerization
10.2.4 Chain Polymerization Steps
10.2.5 Average Molecular Weight for Thermoplastics
10.2.6 Functionality of a Monomer
10.2.7 Structure of Noncrystalline Linear Polymers
10.2.8 Vinyl and Vinylidene Polymers
10.2.9 Homopolymers and Copolymers
10.2.10 Other Methods of Polymerization
10.3 Industrial Polymerization Methods
10.4 Glass Transition Temperature and Crystallinity in Thermoplastics
10.4.1 Glass Transition Temperature
10.4.2 Solidification of Noncrystalline Thermoplastics
10.4.3 Solidification of Partly Crystalline Thermoplastics
10.4.4 Structure of Partly Crystalline Thermoplastic Materials
10.4.5 Stereoisomerism in Thermoplastics
10.4.6 Ziegler and Natta Catalysts
10.5 Processing of Plastic Materials
10.5.1 Processes Used for Thermoplastic Materials
10.5.2 Processes Used for Thermosetting Materials
10.6 General-Purpose Thermoplastics
10.6.1 Polyethylene
10.6.2 Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers
10.6.3 Polypropylene
10.6.4 Polystyrene
10.6.5 Polyacrylonitrile
10.6.6 Styrene–Acrylonitrile (SAN)
10.6.7 ABS
10.6.8 Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA)
10.6.9 Fluoroplastics
10.7 Engineering Thermoplastics
10.7.1 Polyamides (Nylons)
10.7.2 Polycarbonate
10.7.3 Phenylene Oxide–Based Resins
10.7.4 Acetals
10.7.5 Thermoplastic Polyesters
10.7.6 Polyphenylene Sulfide
10.7.7 Polyetherimide
10.7.8 Polymer Alloys
10.8 Thermosetting Plastics (Thermosets)
10.8.1 Phenolics
10.8.2 Epoxy Resins
10.8.3 Unsaturated Polyesters
10.8.4 Amino Resins (Ureas and Melamines)
10.9 Elastomers (Rubbers)
10.9.1 Natural Rubber
10.9.2 Synthetic Rubbers
10.9.3 Properties of Polychloroprene Elastomers
10.9.4 Vulcanization of Polychloroprene Elastomers
10.10 Deformation and Strengthening of Plastic Materials
10.10.1 Deformation Mechanisms for Thermoplastics
10.10.2 Strengthening of Thermoplastics
10.10.3 Strengthening of Thermosetting Plastics
10.10.4 Effect of Temperature on the Strength of Plastic Materials
10.11 Creep and Fracture of Polymeric Materials
10.11.1 Creep of Polymeric Materials
10.11.2 Stress Relaxation of Polymeric Materials
10.11.3 Fracture of Polymeric Materials
10.12 Summary
10.13 Definitions
10.14 Problems
CHAPTER 11: Ceramics
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Simple Ceramic Crystal Structures
11.2.1 Ionic and Covalent Bonding in Simple Ceramic Compounds
11.2.2 Simple Ionic Arrangements Found in Ionically Bonded Solids
11.2.3 Cesium Chloride (CsCl) Crystal Structure
11.2.4 Sodium Chloride (NaCl) Crystal Structure
11.2.5 Interstitial Sites in FCC and HCP Crystal Lattices
11.2.6 Zinc Blende (ZnS) Crystal Structure
11.2.7 Calcium Fluoride (CaF2) Crystal Structure
11.2.8 Antifluorite Crystal Structure
11.2.9 Corundum (Al2O3) Crystal Structure
11.2.10 Spinel (MgAl2O4) Crystal Structure
11.2.11 Perovskite (CaTiO3) Crystal Structure
11.2.12 Carbon and Its Allotropes
11.3 Silicate Structures
11.3.1 Basic Structural Unit of the Silicate Structures
11.3.2 Island, Chain, and Ring Structures of Silicates
11.3.3 Sheet Structures of Silicates
11.3.4 Silicate Networks
11.4 Processing of Ceramics
11.4.1 Materials Preparation
11.4.2 Forming
11.4.3 Thermal Treatments
11.5 Traditional and Structural Ceramics
11.5.1 Traditional Ceramics
11.5.2 Structural Ceramics
11.6 Mechanical Properties of Ceramics
11.6.1 General
11.6.2 Mechanisms for the Deformation of Ceramic Materials
11.6.3 Factors Affecting the Strength of Ceramic Materials
11.6.4 Toughness of Ceramic Materials
11.6.5 Transformation Toughening of Partially Stabilized Zirconia (PSZ)
11.6.6 Fatigue Failure of Ceramics
11.6.7 Ceramic Abrasive Materials
11.7 Thermal Properties of Ceramics
11.7.1 Ceramic Refractory Materials
11.7.2 Acidic Refractories
11.7.3 Basic Refractories
11.7.4 Ceramic Tile Insulation for the Space Shuttle Orbiter
11.8 Glasses
11.8.1 Definition of a Glass
11.8.2 Glass Transition Temperature
11.8.3 Structure of Glasses
11.8.4 Compositions of Glasses
11.8.5 Viscous Deformation of Glasses
11.8.6 Forming Methods for Glasses
11.8.7 Tempered Glass
11.8.8 Chemically Strengthened Glass
11.9 Ceramic Coatings and Surface Engineering
11.9.1 Silicate Glasses
11.9.2 Oxides and Carbides
11.10 Nanotechnology and Ceramics
11.11 Summary
11.12 Definitions
11.13 Problems
CHAPTER 12: Composite Materials
12.1 Introduction
12.1.1 Classification of Composite Materials
12.1.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Composite Materials over Conventional Materials
12.2 Fibers for Reinforced-Plastic Composite Materials
12.2.1 Glass Fibers for Reinforcing Plastic Resins
12.2.2 Carbon Fibers for Reinforced Plastics
12.2.3 Aramid Fibers for Reinforcing Plastic Resins
12.2.4 Comparison of Mechanical Properties of Carbon, Aramid, and Glass Fibers for Reinforced-Plastic Composite Materials
12.3 Matrix Materials for Composites
12.4 Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Composite Materials
12.4.1 Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastics
12.4.2 Carbon Fiber–Reinforced Epoxy Resins
12.5 Equations for Elastic Modulus of Composite Laminates: Isostrain and Isostress Conditions
12.5.1 Isostrain Conditions
12.5.2 Isostress Conditions
12.6 Open-Mold Processes for Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Composite Materials
12.6.1 Hand Lay-Up Process
12.6.2 Spray Lay-Up Process
12.6.3 Vacuum Bag–Autoclave Process
12.6.4 Filament-Winding Process
12.7 Closed-Mold Processes for Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Composite Materials
12.7.1 Compression and Injection Molding
12.7.2 The Sheet-Molding Compound (SMC) Process
12.7.3 Continuous-Pultrusion Process
12.8 Concrete
12.8.1 Portland Cement
12.8.2 Mixing Water for Concrete
12.8.3 Aggregates for Concrete
12.8.4 Air Entrainment
12.8.5 Compressive Strength of Concrete
12.8.6 Proportioning of Concrete Mixtures
12.8.7 Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete
12.8.8 Prestressed Concrete
12.9 Asphalt and Asphalt Mixes
12.10 Wood
12.10.1 Macrostructure of Wood
12.10.2 Microstructure of Softwoods
12.10.3 Microstructure of Hardwoods
12.10.4 Cell-Wall Ultrastructure
12.10.5 Properties of Wood
12.11 Sandwich Structures
12.11.1 Honeycomb Sandwich Structure
12.11.2 Cladded Metal Structures
12.12 Metal-Matrix and Ceramic-Matrix Composites
12.12.1 Metal-Matrix Composites (MMCs)
12.12.2 Ceramic-Matrix Composites (CMCs)
12.12.3 Ceramic Composites and Nanotechnology
12.13 Summary
12.14 Definitions
12.15 Problems
CHAPTER 13 Corrosion
13.1 Corrosion and Its Economical Impact
13.2 Electrochemical Corrosion of Metals
13.2.1 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
13.2.2 Standard Electrode Half-Cell Potentials for Metals
13.3 Galvanic Cells
13.3.1 Macroscopic Galvanic Cells with Electrolytes That Are One Molar
13.3.2 Galvanic Cells with Electrolytes That Are Not One Molar
13.3.3 Galvanic Cells with Acid or Alkaline Electrolytes with No Metal Ions Present
13.3.4 Microscopic Galvanic Cell Corrosion of Single Electrodes
13.3.5 Concentration Galvanic Cells
13.3.6 Galvanic Cells Created by Differences in Composition, Structure, and Stress
13.4 Corrosion Rates (Kinetics)
13.4.1 Rate of Uniform Corrosion or Electroplating of a Metal in an Aqueous Solution
13.4.2 Corrosion Reactions and Polarization
13.4.3 Passivation
13.4.4 The Galvanic Series
13.5 Types of Corrosion
13.5.1 Uniform or General Attack Corrosion
13.5.2 Galvanic or Two-Metal Corrosion
13.5.3 Pitting Corrosion
13.5.4 Crevice Corrosion
13.5.5 Intergranular Corrosion
13.5.6 Stress Corrosion
13.5.7 Erosion Corrosion
13.5.8 Cavitation Damage
13.5.9 Fretting Corrosion
13.5.10 Selective Leaching
13.5.11 Hydrogen Damage
13.6 Oxidation of Metals
13.6.1 Protective Oxide Films
13.6.2 Mechanisms of Oxidation
13.6.3 Oxidation Rates (Kinetics)
13.7 Corrosion Control
13.7.1 Materials Selection
13.7.2 Coatings
13.7.3 Design
13.7.4 Alteration of Environment
13.7.5 Cathodic and Anodic Protection
13.8 Summary
13.9 Definitions
13.10 Problems
CHAPTER 14: Electrical Properties of Materials
14.1 Electrical Conduction In Metals
14.1.1 The Classic Model for Electrical Conduction in Metals
14.1.2 Ohm’s Law
14.1.3 Drift Velocity of Electrons in a Conducting Metal
14.1.4 Electrical Resistivity of Metals
14.2 Energy-Band Model for Electrical Conduction
14.2.1 Energy-Band Model for Metals
14.2.2 Energy-Band Model for Insulators
14.3 Intrinsic Semiconductors
14.3.1 The Mechanism of Electrical Conduction in Intrinsic Semiconductors
14.3.2 Electrical Charge Transport in the Crystal Lattice of Pure Silicon
14.3.3 Energy-Band Diagram for Intrinsic Elemental Semiconductors
14.3.4 Quantitative Relationships for Electrical Conduction in Elemental Intrinsic Semiconductors
14.3.5 Effect of Temperature on Intrinsic Semiconductivity
14.4 Extrinsic Semiconductors
14.4.1 n-Type (Negative-Type) Extrinsic Semiconductors
14.4.2 p-Type (Positive-Type) Extrinsic Semiconductors
14.4.3 Doping of Extrinsic Silicon Semiconductor Material
14.4.4 Effect of Doping on Carrier Concentrations in Extrinsic Semiconductors
14.4.5 Effect of Total Ionized Impurity Concentration on the Mobility of Charge Carriers in Silicon at Room Temperature
14.4.6 Effect of Temperature on the Electrical Conductivity of Extrinsic Semiconductors
14.5 Semiconductor Devices
14.5.1 The pn Junction
14.5.2 Some Applications for pn Junction Diodes
14.5.3 The Bipolar Junction Transistor
14.6 Microelectronics
14.6.1 Microelectronic Planar Bipolar Transistors
14.6.2 Microelectronic Planar Field-Effect Transistors
14.6.3 Fabrication of Microelectronic Integrated Circuits
14.7 Compound Semiconductors
14.8 Electrical Properties of Ceramics
14.8.1 Basic Properties of Dielectrics
14.8.2 Ceramic Insulator Materials
14.8.3 Ceramic Materials for Capacitors
14.8.4 Ceramic Semiconductors
14.8.5 Ferroelectric Ceramics
14.9 Nanoelectronics
14.10 Summary
14.11 Definitions
14.12 Problems
CHAPTER 15 Optical Properties and Superconductive Materials
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Light and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
15.3 Refraction of Light
15.3.1 Index of Refraction
15.3.2 Snell’s Law of Light Refraction
15.4 Absorption, Transmission, and Reflection of Light
15.4.1 Metals
15.4.2 Silicate Glasses
15.4.3 Plastics
15.4.4 Semiconductors
15.5 Luminescence
15.5.1 Photoluminescence
15.5.2 Cathodoluminescence
15.6 Stimulated Emission of Radiation and Lasers
15.6.1 Types of Lasers
15.7 Optical Fibers
15.7.1 Light Loss in Optical Fibers
15.7.2 Single-Mode and Multimode Optical Fibers
15.7.3 Fabrication of Optical Fibers
15.7.4 Modern Optical-Fiber Communication Systems
15.8 Superconducting Materials
15.8.1 The Superconducting State
15.8.2 Magnetic Properties of Superconductors
15.8.3 Current Flow and Magnetic Fields in Superconductors
15.8.4 High-Current, High-Field Superconductors
15.8.5 High Critical Temperature (Tc) Superconducting Oxides
15.9 Definitions
15.10 Problems
CHAPTER 16: Magnetic Properties
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Magnetic Fields and Quantities
16.2.1 Magnetic Fields
16.2.2 Magnetic Induction
16.2.3 Magnetic Permeability
16.2.4 Magnetic Susceptibility
16.3 Types of Magnetism
16.3.1 Diamagnetism
16.3.2 Paramagnetism
16.3.3 Ferromagnetism
16.3.4 Magnetic Moment of a Single Unpaired Atomic Electron
16.3.5 Antiferromagnetism
16.3.6 Ferrimagnetism
16.4 Effect of Temperature on Ferromagnetism
16.5 Ferromagnetic Domains
16.6 Types of Energies that Determine the Structure of Ferromagnetic Domains
16.6.1 Exchange Energy
16.6.2 Magnetostatic Energy
16.6.3 Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy Energy
16.6.4 Domain Wall Energy
16.6.5 Magnetostrictive Energy
16.7 The Magnetization and Demagnetization of a Ferromagnetic Metal
16.8 Soft Magnetic Materials
16.8.1 Desirable Properties for Soft Magnetic Materials
16.8.2 Energy Losses for Soft Magnetic Materials
16.8.3 Iron–Silicon Alloys
16.8.4 Metallic Glasses
16.8.5 Nickel–Iron Alloys
16.9 Hard Magnetic Materials
16.9.1 Properties of Hard Magnetic Materials
16.9.2 Alnico Alloys
16.9.3 Rare Earth Alloys
16.9.4 Neodymium–Iron–Boron Magnetic Alloys
16.9.5 Iron–Chromium–Cobalt Magnetic Alloys
16.10 Ferrites
16.10.1 Magnetically Soft Ferrites
16.10.2 Magnetically Hard Ferrites
16.11 Summary
16.12 Definitions
16.13 Problems
CHAPTER 17 Biological Materials and Biomaterials
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Biological Materials: Bone
17.2.1 Composition
17.2.2 Macrostructure
17.2.3 Mechanical Properties
17.2.4 Biomechanics of Bone Fracture
17.2.5 Viscoelasticity of Bone
17.2.6 Bone Remodeling
17.2.7 A Composite Model of Bone
17.3 Biological Materials: Tendons and Ligaments
17.3.1 Macrostructure and Composition
17.3.2 Microstructure
17.3.3 Mechanical Properties
17.3.4 Structure-Property Relationship
17.3.5 Constitutive Modeling and Viscoelasticity
17.3.6 Ligament and Tendon Injury
17.4 Biological Material: Articular Cartilage
17.4.1 Composition and Macrostructure
17.4.2 Microstructure
17.4.3 Mechanical Properties
17.4.4 Cartilage Degeneration
17.5 Biomaterials: Metals in Biomedical Applications
17.5.1 Stainless Steels
17.5.2 Cobalt-Based Alloys
17.5.3 Titanium Alloys
17.5.4 Some Issues in Orthopedic Application of Metals
17.6 Polymers in Biomedical Applications
17.6.1 Cardiovascular Applications of Polymers
17.6.2 Ophthalmic Applications
17.6.3 Drug Delivery Systems
17.6.4 Suture Materials
17.6.5 Orthopedic Applications
17.7 Ceramics in Biomedical Applications
17.7.1 Alumina in Orthopedic Implants
17.7.2 Alumina in Dental Implants
17.7.3 Ceramic Implants and Tissue Connectivity
17.7.4 Nanocrystalline Ceramics
17.8 Composites in Biomedical Applications
17.8.1 Orthopedic Applications
17.8.2 Applications in Dentistry
17.9 Corrosion in Biomaterials
17.10 Wear in Biomedical Implants
17.11 Tissue Engineering
17.12 Summary
17.13 Definitions
17.14 Problems
APPENDIX I: Important Properties of Selected Engineering Materials
APPENDIX II: Some Properties of Selected Elements
APPENDIX III: Ionic Radii of the Elements
APPENDIX IV: Glass Transition Temperature and Melting Temperature of Selected Polymers
APPENDIX V: Selected Physical Quantities and Their Units
References for Further Study by Chapter

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