Principles of Human Physiology (6th Edition)


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Cindy L. Stanfield













Table of Content

Table of contents :
Title Page
Copyright Page
About the Author
Brief Contents
List of Boxes
1 Introduction to Physiology
1.1 Organization of the Body
Cells, Tissues, Organs, and Organ Systems
The Overall Body Plan: A Simplified View
1.2 Homeostasis: A Central Organizing Principle of Physiology
Negative Feedback Control in Homeostasis
1.3 The Diabetes Epidemic
Prevalence of Diabetes
Obesity and Diabetes
Classification of Diabetes
Diagnosing Diabetes Mellitus
Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus
Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus
Chapter Summary
2 The Cell Structure and Function
2.1 Biomolecules
Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, and Polysaccharides
Amino Acids and Proteins
Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids
2.2 Cell Structure
Structure of the Plasma Membrane
Structure of the Nucleus
Contents of the Cytosol
Structure of Membranous Organelles
Structure of Nonmembranous Organelles
2.3 Cell-to-Cell Adhesions
Tight Junctions
Gap Junctions
2.4 General Cell Functions
Cellular Transport
Intercellular Communication
2.5 Protein Synthesis
The Role of the Genetic Code
Destination of Proteins
Post-translational Processing and Packaging of Proteins
Regulation of Protein Synthesis
Protein Degradation
2.6 Cell Division
Replication of DNA
The Cell Cycle
Chapter Summary
3 Cell Metabolism
3.1 Types of Metabolic Reactions
Hydrolysis and Condensation Reactions
Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation Reactions
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
3.2 Metabolic Reactions and Energy
Energy and the Laws of Thermodynamics
Energy Changes in Reactions
Activation Energy
3.3 Reaction Rates
Factors Affecting the Rates of Chemical Reactions
The Role of Enzymes in Chemical Reactions
3.4 ATP: The Medium of Energy Exchange
3.5 Glucose Oxidation: The Central Reaction of Energy Metabolism
Coupling Glucose Oxidation to ATP Synthesis
3.6 Stages of Glucose Oxidation: Glycolysis, the Krebs Cycle, and Oxidative Phosphorylation
The Krebs Cycle
Oxidative Phosphorylation
The Electron Transport Chain
Summary of Glucose Oxidation
Glucose Catabolism in the Absence of Oxygen
3.7 Energy Storage and Use: Metabolism of Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins
Glycogen Metabolism
Gluconeogenesis: Formation of New Glucose
Fat Metabolism
Protein Metabolism
Chapter Summary
Cell Membrane Transport
4.1 Factors Affecting the Direction of Transport
Passive Transport Versus Active Transport
Driving Forces Acting on Molecules
4.2 Rate of Transport
4.3 Passive Transport
Simple Diffusion: Passive Transport Through the Lipid Bilayer
Facilitated Diffusion: Passive Transport Utilizing Membrane Proteins
Diffusion Through Channels
4.4 Active Transport
Primary Active Transport
Secondary Active Transport
Factors Affecting Rates of Active Transport
Coexistence of Active and Passive Transport Mechanisms in Cells
4.5 Osmosis: Passive Transport of Water Across Membranes
Osmotic Pressure
4.6 Transport of Material Within Membrane-Bound Compartments
Transport of Molecules into Cells by Endocytosis
Transport of Molecules Out of Cells by Exocytosis
4.7 Epithelial Transport: Movement of Molecules Across Two Membranes
Epithelial Solute Transport
Epithelial Structure
Epithelial Water Transport
Chapter Summary
5 Chemical Messengers
5.1 Mechanisms of Intercellular Communication
Direct Communication Through Gap Junctions
Indirect Communication Through Chemical Messengers
5.2 Chemical Messengers
Functional Classification of Chemical Messengers
Chemical Classification of Messengers
Synthesis and Release of Chemical Messengers
Transport of Messengers
5.3 Signal Transduction Mechanisms
Properties of Receptors
Signal Transduction Mechanisms for Responses Mediated by Intracellular Receptors
Signal Transduction Mechanisms for Responses Mediated by Membrane-Bound Receptors
5.4 Long-Distance Communication via the Nervous and Endocrine Systems
Chapter Summary
6 The Endocrine System:Endocrine Glandsand Hormone Actions
6.1 Primary Endocrine Organs
Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
Pineal Gland
Thyroid Gland and Parathyroid Glands
Adrenal Glands
6.2 Secondary Endocrine Organs
6.3 Hormone Actions at the Target Cell
Control of Hormone Levels in Blood
6.4 Abnormal Secretion of Hormones
6.5 Hormone Interactions
Chapter Summary
7 Nerve Cells and Electrical Signaling
7.1 Overview of the Nervous System
7.2 Cells of the Nervous System
Glial Cells
7.3 Establishment of the Resting Membrane Potential
Determining the Equilibrium Potentials for Potassium and Sodium Ions
Resting Membrane Potential of Neurons
Neurons at Rest
7.4 Electrical Signaling Through Changes in Membrane Potential
Describing Changes in Membrane Potential
Graded Potentials
Action Potentials
Propagation of Action Potentials
7.5 Maintaining Neural Stability
Chapter Summary
8 Synaptic Transmission and Neural Integration
8.1 Electrical Synapses
8.2 Chemical Synapses
Functional Anatomy of Chemical Synapses
Signal Transduction Mechanisms at Chemical Synapses
Excitatory Synapses
Inhibitory Synapses
8.3 Neural Integration
Frequency Coding
8.4 Presynaptic Modulation
Presynaptic Facilitation
Presynaptic Inhibition
8.5 Neurotransmitters: Structure, Synthesis, and Degradation
Biogenic Amines
Amino Acid Neurotransmitters
Unique Neurotransmitters
Chapter Summary
9 The Nervous System:Central Nervous System
9.1 General Anatomy of the Central Nervous System
Glial Cells
Physical Support of the Central Nervous System
Blood Supply to the Central Nervous System
The Blood-Brain Barrier
Gray Matter and White Matter
9.2 The Spinal Cord
Spinal Nerves
Spinal Cord Gray and White Matter
9.3 The Brain
Cerebral Cortex
Subcortical Nuclei
Limbic System
9.4 Integrated CNS Function: Involuntary Movement Through Reflexes
Stretch Reflex
Withdrawal and Crossed-Extensor Reflexes
9.5 Integrated CNS Function: Voluntary Motor Control
Neural Components for Smooth Voluntary Movements
Lateral Pathways Control Voluntary Movement
Ventromedial Pathways Control Voluntary and Involuntary Movements
The Control of Posture by the Brainstem
The Role of the Cerebellum in Motor Coordination
The Basal Nuclei in Motor Control
9.6 Integrated CNS Function: Language
9.7 Integrated CNS Function: Sleep
Functions of Sleep
Sleep-Wake Cycles
Electrical Activity During Wakefulness and Sleep
9.8 Integrated CNS Function: Emotions and Motivation
9.9 Integrated CNS Function: Learning and Memory
Plasticity in the Nervous System
Chapter Summary
10 The Nervous System: Sensory Systems
10.1 General Principles of Sensory Physiology
Receptor Physiology
Sensory Pathways
Sensory Coding
10.2 The Somatosensory System
Somatosensory Receptors
The Somatosensory Cortex
Somatosensory Pathways
Pain Perception
10.3 Vision
Anatomy of the Eye
The Nature and Behavior of Light Waves
Clinical Defects in Vision
Regulating the Amount of Light Entering the Eye
The Retina
Rods versus Cones
Color Vision
Light Input to Circadian Rhythms
Bleaching of Photoreceptors in Light
Neural Processing in the Retina
Neural Pathways for Vision
Parallel Processing in the Visual System
Depth Perception
10.4 The Ear and Hearing
Anatomy of the Ear
The Nature of Sound Waves
Sound Amplification in the Middle Ear
Signal Transduction for Sound
Neural Pathways for Sound
10.5 The Ear and Equilibrium
Anatomy of the Vestibular Apparatus
The Semicircular Canals and the Transduction of Rotation
The Utricle and Saccule and the Transduction of Linear Acceleration
Neural Pathways for Equilibrium
10.6 Taste
Anatomy of Taste Buds
Signal Transduction in Taste
Neural Pathway for Taste
10.7 Olfaction
Anatomy of the Olfactory System
Olfactory Signal Transduction
Neural Pathway for Olfaction
Chapter Summary
11 The Nervous System:Autonomic and MotorSystems
11.1 The Autonomic Nervous System
Dual Innervation in the Autonomic Nervous System
Anatomy of the Autonomic Nervous System
Autonomic Neurotransmitters and Receptors
Autonomic Neuroeffector Junctions
Regulation of Autonomic Function
11.2 The Somatic Nervous System
Anatomy of the Somatic Nervous System
The Neuromuscular Junction
Chapter Summary
12 Muscle Physiology
12.1 Skeletal Muscle Structure
Structure at the Cellular Level
Structure at the Molecular Level
12.2 The Mechanism of Force Generation in Muscle
The Sliding-Filament Model
The Crossbridge Cycle: How Muscles Generate Force
Excitation-Contraction Coupling: How Muscle Contractions Are Turned On and Off
12.3 The Mechanics of Skeletal Muscle Contraction
The Twitch
Factors Affecting the Force Generated by Individual Muscle Fibers
Regulation of the Force Generated by Whole Muscles
Velocity of Shortening
12.4 Skeletal Muscle Metabolism
Muscle Cell Metabolism: How Muscle Cells Generate ATP
Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers
12.5 Control of Skeletal Muscle Activity
Muscle Activity Across Joints
Muscle Receptors for Coordinated Activity
12.6 Smooth and Cardiac Muscle
Smooth Muscle
Cardiac Muscle
Chapter Summary
13 The Cardiovascular System: Cardiac Function
13.1 An Overview of the Cardiovascular System
The Heart
Blood Vessels
13.2 The Path of Blood Flow Through the Heart and Vasculature
Series Flow Through the Cardiovascular System
Parallel Flow Within the Systemic or Pulmonary Circuit
13.3 Anatomy of the Heart
Myocardium and the Heart Wall
Valves and Unidirectional Blood Flow
13.4 Electrical Activity of the Heart
The Conduction System of the Heart
Spread of Excitation Through the Heart Muscle
The Ionic Basis of Electrical Activity in the Heart
Recording the Electrical Activity of the Heart with an Electrocardiogram
13.5 The Cardiac Cycle
Phases of the Cardiac Cycle
Atrial and Ventricular Pressure
Aortic Pressure
Ventricular Volume
Pressure-Volume Curve
Heart Sounds
13.6 Cardiac Output and Its Control
Autonomic Input to the Heart
Factors Affecting Cardiac Output: Changes in Heart Rate
Factors Affecting Cardiac Output: Changes in Stroke Volume
Integration of Factors Affecting Cardiac Output
Chapter Summary
14 The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels, Blood Flow,and Blood Pressure
14.1 Physical Laws Governing Blood Flow and Blood Pressure
Pressure Gradients in the Cardiovascular System
Resistance in the Cardiovascular System
Relating Pressure Gradients and Resistance in the Systemic Circulation
14.2 Overview of the Vasculature
14.3 Arteries
Arteries: A Pressure Reservoir
Arterial Blood Pressure
14.4 Arterioles
Arterioles and Resistance to Blood Flow
Intrinsic Control of Blood Flow Distribution to Organs
Extrinsic Control of Arteriole Radius and Mean Arterial Pressure
14.5 Capillaries and Venules
Capillary Anatomy
Local Control of Blood Flow Through Capillary Beds
Movement of Material Across Capillary Walls
14.6 Veins
Veins: A Volume Reservoir
Factors That Influence Venous Pressure and Venous Return
14.7 The Lymphatic System
14.8 Mean Arterial Pressure and Its Regulation
Determinants of Mean Arterial Pressure: Heart Rate, Stroke Volume, and Total Peripheral Resistance
Regulation of Mean Arterial Pressure
Control of Blood Pressure by LowPressure Baroreceptors (Volume Receptors)
14.9 Other Cardiovascular Regulatory Processes
Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia
Chemoreceptor Reflexes
Thermoregulatory Responses
Chapter Summary
The Cardiovascular System: Blood
15.1 Overview of the Composition of Blood: The Hematocrit
15.3 Erythrocytes
15.2 Plasma
Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transport
Life Cycle of Erythrocytes
15.4 Leukocytes
15.5 Platelets and Hemostasis
Vascular Spasm
Platelet Plug
Formation of a Blood Clot
15.6 Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease
Chapter Summary
16 The Respiratory System: Pulmonary Ventilation
16.1 Overview of Respiratory Function
16.2 Anatomy of the Respiratory System
Upper Airways
The Respiratory Tract
Structures of the Thoracic Cavity
16.3 Forces for Pulmonary Ventilation
Pulmonary Pressures
Mechanics of Breathing
16.4 Factors Affecting Pulmonary Ventilation
Lung Compliance
Airway Resistance
16.5 Clinical Significance of Respiratory Volumes and Air Flows
Lung Volumes and Capacities
Pulmonary Function Tests
Alveolar Ventilation
Chapter Summary
17 The Respiratory System:Gas Exchange and Regulation of Breathing
17.1 Overview of the Pulmonary Circulation
17.2 Diffusion of Gases
Partial Pressure of Gases
Solubility of Gases in Liquids
17.3 Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide
Gas Exchange in the Lungs
Gas Exchange in Respiring Tissue
Determinants of Alveolar Po2 and Pco2
17.4 Transport of Gases in the Blood
Oxygen Transport in the Blood
Carbon Dioxide Transport in the Blood
17.5 Central Regulation of Ventilation
Neural Control of Breathing by Motor Neurons
Generation of the Breathing Rhythm in the Brainstem
Peripheral Input to Respiratory Centers
17.6 Control of Ventilation by Chemoreceptors
Chemoreceptor Reflexes
17.7 Local Regulation of Ventilation and Perfusion
Ventilation-Perfusion Ratios
Local Control of Ventilation and Perfusion
17.8 The Respiratory System in Acid-Base Homeostasis
Acid-Base Disturbances in Blood
The Role of the Respiratory System in Acid-Base Balance
Chapter Summary
18 Urinary System: Renal Function
18.1 Functions of the Urinary System
18.2 Anatomy of the Urinary System
Structures of the Urinary System
Macroscopic Anatomy of the Kidney
Microscopic Anatomy of the Kidney
Blood Supply to the Kidney
18.3 Basic Renal Exchange Processes
Glomerular Filtration
Transport Maximum
18.4 Regional Specialization of the Renal Tubules
Nonregulated Reabsorption in the Proximal Tubule
Regulated Reabsorption and Secretion in the Distal Tubule and Collecting Duct
Water Conservation in the Loop of Henle
18.5 Excretion
Excretion Rate
Chapter Summary
19 The Urinary System:Fluid and ElectrolyteBalance
19.1 The Concept of Balance
Factors Affecting the Plasma Composition
Solute and Water Balance
19.2 Water Balance
Osmolarity and the Movement of Water
Water Reabsorption in the Proximal Tubule
Establishment of the Medullary Osmotic Gradient
Role of the Medullary Osmotic Gradient in Water Reabsorption in the Distal Tubule and Collecting Duct
19.3 Sodium Balance
Mechanisms of Sodium Reabsorption in the Renal Tubule
The Effects of Aldosterone
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide
19.4 Potassium Balance
Renal Handling of Potassium Ions
Regulation of Potassium Secretion by Aldosterone
19.5 Calcium Balance
Renal Handling of Calcium Ions
Hormonal Control of Plasma Calcium Concentrations
19.6 Interactions Between Fluid and Electrolyte Regulation
19.7 Acid-Base Balance
Sources of Acid-Base Disturbances
Defense Mechanisms Against Acid-Base Disturbances
Compensation for Acid-Base Disturbances
Chapter Summary
20 The Gastrointestinal System
20.1 Overview of Gastrointestinal System Processes
20.2 Functional Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal System
The Gastrointestinal Tract
The Accessory Glands
20.3 Digestion and Absorption of Nutrients and Water
Absorption of Vitamins
Absorption of Minerals
Absorption of Water
20.4 General Principles of Gastrointestinal Regulation
Neural and Endocrine Pathways of Gastrointestinal Control
Regulation of Food Intake
20.5 Gastrointestinal Secretion and Its Regulation
Saliva Secretion
Acid and Pepsinogen Secretion in the Stomach
Secretion of Pancreatic Juice and Bile
Rates of Fluid Movement in the Digestive System
20.6 Gastrointestinal Motility and Its Regulation
Electrical Activity in Gastrointestinal Smooth Muscle
Peristalsis and Segmentation
Chewing and Swallowing
Gastric Motility
Motility of the Small Intestine
Motility of the Colon
Chapter Summary
21 The Endocrine System: Regulation of Energy Metabolism and Growth
21.1 An Overview of WholeBody Metabolism
Regulation of Metabolic Pathways
21.2 Energy Intake, Utilization, and Storage
Uptake, Utilization, and Storage of Energy in Carbohydrates
Uptake, Utilization, and Storage of Energy in Proteins
Uptake, Utilization, and Storage of Energy in Fats
21.3 Energy Balance
Energy Input
Energy Output
Metabolic Rate
Negative and Positive Energy Balance
21.4 Energy Metabolism During the Absorptive and Postabsorptive States
Metabolism During the Absorptive State
Metabolism During the Postabsorptive State
21.5 Regulation of Absorptive and Postabsorptive Metabolism
The Role of Insulin
The Role of Glucagon
Negative Feedback Control of Blood Glucose Levels by Insulin and Glucagon
Effects of Epinephrine and Sympathetic Nervous Activity on Metabolism
21.6 Thermoregulation
Temperature Balance
Mechanisms of Heat Transfer Between the Body and the External Environment
Regulation of Body Temperature
Alterations in the Set Point for Thermoregulation: Fever
21.7 Hormonal Regulation of Growth
Body Growth
Effects of Growth Hormone
Other Hormones That Affect Growth
21.8 Thyroid Hormones
Synthesis and Secretion of Thyroid Hormones
Actions of Thyroid Hormones
21.9 Glucocorticoids
Factors Affecting Secretion of Glucocorticoids
Actions of Glucocorticoids
The Role of Cortisol in the Stress Response
Effects of Abnormal Glucocorticoid Secretion
Chapter Summary
22 The Reproductive System
22.1 An Overview of Reproductive Physiology
The Role of Gametes in Sexual Reproduction
Gene Sorting and Packaging in Gametogenesis: Meiosis
Components of the Reproductive System
Events Following Fertilization
Patterns of Reproductive Activity over the Human Life Span
22.2 The Male Reproductive System
Functional Anatomy of the Male Reproductive Organs
Hormonal Regulation of Reproductive Function in Males
Sperm and Their Development
The Sexual Response in Males
22.3 The Female Reproductive System
Functional Anatomy of the Female Reproductive Organs
Ova and Their Development
The Sexual Response in Females
The Menstrual Cycle
Long-Term Hormonal Regulation of Female Reproductive Function
22.4 Fertilization, Implantation, and Pregnancy
Events of Fertilization
Early Embryonic Development and Implantation
Later Embryonic and Fetal Development
Hormonal Changes During Pregnancy
22.5 Parturition and Lactation
Events of Parturition
Chapter Summary
23 The Immune System
23.1 Anatomy of the Immune System
Physical Barriers
Lymphoid Tissues
23.2 Pathogens That Activate the Immune Response
23.3 Organization of the Body’s Defenses
Nonspecific Defenses
Specific Defenses: Immune Responses
23.4 Humoral Immunity
The Role of B Lymphocytes in Antibody Production
Antibody Function in Humoral Immunity
23.5 CellMediated Immunity
Roles of T Lymphocytes in CellMediated Immunity
Helper T Cell Activation
Cytotoxic T Cell Activation: The Destruction of VirusInfected Cells and Tumor Cells
23.6 Immune Responses in Health and Disease
Generating Immunity: Immunization
Roles of the Immune System in Transfusion and Transplantation
Immune Dysfunctions
Chapter Summary
24 Diabetes Mellitus
24.1 Classification of Diabetes Mellitus
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
24.2 Acute Effects of Diabetes Mellitus
Acute Hyperglycemia
Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Coma
Hypoglycemic Coma
24.3 Chronic Complications of Diabetes Mellitus: Early Stages
24.4 Chronic Complications of Diabetes Mellitus: Advanced Stages
Adverse Effects of Hyperglycemia
Effects of Diabetes Mellitus on the Microvasculature
24.5 Progression of Diabetes Mellitus to Critical States
Effects of Diabetes on the Macrovasculature
Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
24.6 Delayed Wound Healing
Wound Healing
Altered Wound Healing in Diabetes
24.7 Treatment and Management of Diabetes Mellitus
24.8 Current Research on Diabetes Mellitus
New Techniques for Insulin Administration
Development of New Medicines for the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus
Nonpharmaceutical Therapies for the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus
Chapter Summary
Answers to Figure Questions, Apply Your
Knowledge, and End-of-Chapter Multiple
Choice and Objective Questions

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