Hughes Electrical and Electronic Technology (12th Edition)


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All good engineers need to understand the fundamental principles of electrical and electronic technology. This best-selling textbook Hughes Electrical and Electronic Technology 12th edition (PDF) provides an accessible and clear introduction to the area; with balanced coverage of electronic; electrical; and power engineering.

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Edward Hughes


Pearson Education; 12th edition




1008 pages




1292093048; 1292134593; 1292093080


9781292093048/ 9781292134598/ 9781292093086

Table of contents

Table of contents :
Title Page
Copyright Page
Short Contents
Section 1 Electrical Principles
1 International System of Measurement
1.1 The International System
1.2 SI derived units
1.3 Unit of turning moment or torque
1.4 Unit of work or energy
1.5 Unit of power
1.6 Efficiency
1.7 Temperature
Summary of important formulae
Terms and concepts
2 Introduction to Electrical Systems
2.1 Electricity and the engineer
2.2 An electrical system
2.3 Electric charge
2.4 Movement of electrons
2.5 Current flow in a circuit
2.6 Electromotive force and potential difference
2.7 Electrical units
2.8 Ohm’s law
2.9 Resistors
2.10 Resistor coding
2.11 Conductors and insulators
2.12 The electric circuit in practice
Summary of important formulae
Terms and concepts
3 Simple DC Circuits
3.1 Series circuits
3.2 Parallel networks
3.3 Series circuits versus parallel networks
3.4 Kirchhoff’s laws
3.5 Power and energy
3.6 Resistivity
3.7 Temperature coefficient of resistance
3.8 Temperature rise
Summary of important formulae
Terms and concepts
4 Network Theorems
4.1 New circuit analysis techniques
4.2 Kirchhoff’s laws and network solution
4.3 Mesh analysis
4.4 Nodal analysis
4.5 Superposition theorem
4.6 Thévenin’s theorem
4.7 The constant-current generator
4.8 Norton’s theorem
4.9 Delta–star transformation
4.10 Star–delta transformation
4.11 II and T networks
4.12 Maximum power transfer
Summary of important formulae
Terms and concepts
5 Capacitance and Capacitors
5.1 Capacitors
5.2 Hydraulic analogy
5.3 Charge and voltage
5.4 Capacitance
5.5 Capacitors in parallel
5.6 Capacitors in series
5.7 Distribution of voltage across capacitors in series
5.8 Capacitance and the capacitor
5.9 Electric fields
5.10 Electric field strength and electric flux density
5.11 Relative permittivity
5.12 Capacitance of a multi-plate capacitor
5.13 Composite-dielectric capacitors
5.14 Charging and discharging currents
5.15 Growth and decay
5.16 Analysis of growth and decay
5.17 Discharge of a capacitor through a resistor
5.18 Transients in CR networks
5.19 Energy stored in a charged capacitor
5.20 Force of attraction between oppositely charged plates
5.21 Dielectric strength
5.22 Leakage and conduction currents in capacitors
5.23 Displacement current in a dielectric
5.24 Types of capacitor and capacitance
Summary of important formulae
Terms and concepts
6 Electromagnetism
6.1 Magnetic field
6.2 Direction of magnetic field
6.3 Characteristics of lines of magnetic flux
6.4 Magnetic field due to an electric current
6.5 Magnetic field of a solenoid
6.6 Force on a current-carrying conductor
6.7 Force determination
6.8 Electromagnetic induction
6.9 Direction of induced e.m.f.
6.10 Magnitude of the generated or induced e.m.f.
6.11 Magnitude of e.m.f. induced in a coil
Summary of important formulae
Terms and concepts
7 Simple Magnetic Circuits
7.1 Introduction to magnetic circuits
7.2 Magnetomotive force and magnetic field strength
7.3 Permeability of free space or magnetic constant
7.4 Relative permeability
7.5 Reluctance
7.6 ‘Ohm’s law for a magnetic circuit’
7.7 Determination of the B/H characteristic
7.8 Comparison of electromagnetic and electrostatic terms
Summary of important formulae
Terms and concepts
8 Inductance in a DC Circuit
8.1 Inductive and non-inductive circuits
8.2 Unit of inductance
8.3 Inductance in terms of flux-linkages per ampere
8.4 Factors determining the inductance of a coil
8.5 Ferromagnetic-cored inductor in a d.c. circuit
8.6 Growth in an inductive circuit
8.7 Analysis of growth
8.8 Analysis of decay
8.9 Transients in LR networks
8.10 Energy stored in an inductor
8.11 Mutual inductance
8.12 Coupling coefficient
8.13 Coils connected in series
8.14 Types of inductor and inductance
Summary of important formulae
Terms and concepts
9 Alternating Voltage and Current
9.1 Alternating systems
9.2 Generation of an alternating e.m.f.
9.3 Waveform terms and definitions
9.4 Relationship between frequency, speed and number of pole pairs
9.5 Average and r.m.s. values of an alternating current
9.6 Average and r.m.s. values of sinusoidal currents and voltages
9.7 Average and r.m.s. values of non-sinusoidal currents and voltages
9.8 Representation of an alternating quantity by a phasor
9.9 Addition and subtraction of sinusoidal alternating quantities
9.10 Phasor diagrams drawn with r.m.s. values instead of maximum values
9.11 Alternating system frequencies in practice
Summary of important formulae
Terms and concepts
10 Single-phase Series Circuits
10.1 Basic a.c. circuits
10.2 Alternating current in a resistive circuit
10.3 Alternating current in an inductive circuit
10.4 Current and voltage in an inductive circuit
10.5 Mechanical analogy of an inductive circuit
10.6 Resistance and inductance in series
10.7 Alternating current in a capacitive circuit
10.8 Current and voltage in a capacitive circuit
10.9 Analogies of a capacitance in an a.c. circuit
10.10 Resistance and capacitance in series
10.11 Alternating current in an RLC circuit
Summary of important formulae
Terms and concepts
11 Single-phase Parallel Networks
11.1 Basic a.c. parallel circuits
11.2 Simple parallel circuits
11.3 Parallel impedance circuits
11.4 Polar impedances
11.5 Polar admittances
Summary of important formulae
Terms and concepts
12 Complex Notation
12.1 The j operator
12.2 Addition and subtraction of phasors
12.3 Voltage, current and impedance
12.4 Admittance, conductance and susceptance
12.5 RL series circuit admittance
12.6 RC series circuit admittance
12.7 Parallel admittance
12.8 Calculation of power using complex notation
12.9 Power and voltamperes
12.10 Complex power
Summary of important formulae
Terms and concepts
13 Power in AC Circuits
13.1 The impossible power
13.2 Power in a resistive circuit
13.3 Power in a purely inductive circuit
13.4 Power in a purely capacitive circuit
13.5 Power in a circuit with resistance and reactance
13.6 Power factor
13.7 Active and reactive currents
13.8 The practical importance of power factor
13.9 Power factor improvement or correction
13.10 Parallel loads
13.11 Measurement of power in a single-phase circuit
Summary of important formulae
Terms and concepts
14 Resonance in AC Circuits
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Frequency variation in a series RLC circuit
14.3 The resonant frequency of a series RLC circuit
14.4 The current in a series RLC circuit
14.5 Voltages in a series RLC circuit
14.6 Quality factor Q
14.7 Oscillation of energy at resonance
14.8 Mechanical analogy of a resonant circuit
14.9 Series resonance using complex notation
14.10 Bandwidth
14.11 Selectivity
14.12 Parallel resonance
14.13 Current magnification
14.14 Parallel and series equivalents
14.15 The two-branch parallel resonant circuit
Summary of important formulae
Terms and concepts
15 Network Theorems Applied to AC Networks
15.1 One stage further
15.2 Kirchhoff’s laws and network solution
15.3 Nodal analysis (Node Voltage method)
15.4 Superposition theorem
15.5 Thévenin’s theorem
15.6 Norton’s theorem
15.7 Star–delta transformation
15.8 Delta–star transformation
15.9 Maximum power transfer
Terms and concepts
Section 2 Electronic Engineering
16 Electronic Systems
16.1 Introduction to systems
16.2 Electronic systems
16.3 Basic amplifiers
16.4 Basic attenuators
16.5 Block diagrams
16.6 Layout of block diagrams
Summary of important formulae
Terms and concepts
17 Passive Filters
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Types of filter
17.3 Frequency response
17.4 Logarithms
17.5 Log scales
17.6 The decibel (dB)
17.7 The low-pass or lag circuit
17.8 The high-pass or lead circuit
17.9 Passband (or bandpass) filter
17.10 Stopband (or bandstop) filters
17.11 Bode plots
17.12 2-port Networks
Summary of important formulae
Terms and concepts
18 Amplifier Equivalent Networks
18.1 Amplifier constant-voltage equivalent networks
18.2 Amplifier constant-current equivalent networks
18.3 Logarithmic units
18.4 Frequency response
18.5 Feedback
18.6 Effect of feedback on input and output resistances
18.7 Effect of feedback on bandwidth
18.8 Distortion
Summary of important formulae
Terms and concepts
19 Semiconductor Materials
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Atomic structure
19.3 Covalent bonds
19.4 An n-type semiconductor
19.5 A p-type semiconductor
19.6 Junction diode
19.7 Construction and static characteristics of a junction diode
Terms and concepts
20 Rectifiers and Amplifier Circuits
20.1 Rectifier circuits
20.2 Half-wave rectifier
20.3 Full-wave rectifier network
20.4 Bridge rectifier network
20.5 Smoothing
20.6 Zener diode
20.7 Bipolar junction transistor
20.8 Construction of bipolar transistor
20.9 Common-base and common-emitter circuits
20.10 Static characteristics for a common-base circuit
20.11 Static characteristics for a common-emitter circuit
20.12 Relationship between a and b
20.13 Load line for a transistor
20.14 Transistor as an amplifier
20.15 Circuit component selection
20.16 Equivalent circuits of a transistor
20.17 Hybrid parameters
20.18 Limitations to the bipolar junction transistor
20.19 Stabilizing voltages supplies
20.20 Transistor as a switch
20.21 Field effect transistor (FET)
20.22 JUGFET
20.23 IGFET
20.24 Static characteristics of a FET
20.25 Equivalent circuit of a FET
20.26 The FET as a switch
20.27 Cascaded amplifiers
20.28 Integrated circuits
20.29 Operational amplifiers
20.30 The inverting operational amplifier
20.31 The summing amplifier
20.32 The non-inverting amplifier
20.33 Differential amplifiers
20.34 Common-mode rejection ratio
Summary of important formulae
Terms and concepts
21 Interfacing Digital and Analogue Systems
21.1 The need for conversion
21.2 Digital-to-analogue conversion
21.3 D/A converter hardware
21.4 D/A converters in practice
21.5 R/2R ladder D/A converter
21.6 Analogue-to-digital conversion
21.7 Simple comparator
21.8 A/D converters
21.9 Converters in action
Terms and concepts
22 Digital Numbers
22.1 Introduction
22.2 Binary numbers
22.3 Decimal to binary conversion
22.4 Binary addition
22.5 Binary subtraction
22.6 Binary multiplication
22.7 Binary division
22.8 Negative binary numbers
22.9 Signed binary addition
22.10 Signed binary subtraction
22.11 Signed binary multiplication
22.12 Signed binary division
22.13 The octal system
22.14 Hexadecimal numbers
Terms and concepts
23 Digital Systems
23.1 Introduction to logic
23.2 Basic logic statements or functions
23.3 The OR function
23.4 The AND function
23.5 The EXCLUSIVE-OR function
23.6 The NOT function
23.7 Logic gates
23.8 The NOR function
23.9 The NAND function
23.10 Logic networks
23.11 Combinational logic
23.12 Gate standardization
23.13 Karnaugh maps for simplifying combinational logic
23.14 Timing diagrams
23.15 Combinational and sequential logic circuits
23.16 Synchronous and asynchronous sequential circuits
23.17 Basic storage elements
23.18 Integrated circuit logic gates
23.19 Programmable logic and hardware description languages
Summary of important formulae
Terms and concepts
24 Signals
24.1 Classification of signals
24.2 Representation of a signal by a continuum of impulses
24.3 Impulse response
24.4 Convolution sum for discrete-time systems
24.5 Convolution integral for continuous-time systems
24.6 Deconvolution
24.7 Relation between impulse response and unit step response
24.8 Step and impulse responses of discrete-time systems
Summary of important formulae
Terms and concepts
25 Data Transmission and Signals
25.1 Transmission of information
25.2 Analogue signals
25.3 Digital signals
25.4 Bandwidth
25.5 Modulation
25.6 Filters
25.7 Demodulation
25.8 Amplifying signals
25.9 Digital or analogue?
Terms and concepts
26 Communications
26.1 Basic concepts
26.2 Information theory for source coding
26.3 Data communication systems
26.4 Coding for efficient transmission
26.5 Source coding
Summary of important formulae
Terms and concepts
27 Fibreoptics
27.1 Introduction
27.2 Fibre loss
27.3 Refraction
27.4 Light acceptance
27.5 Attenuation
27.6 Bandwidth
27.7 Modulation
27.8 Optical fibre systems
Summary of important formulae
Terms and concepts
Section 3 Power Engineering
28 Multiphase Systems
28.1 Disadvantages of the single-phase system
28.2 Generation of three-phase e.m.f.s
28.3 Delta connection of three-phase windings
28.4 Star connection of three-phase windings
28.5 Voltages and currents in a star-connected system
28.6 Voltages and currents in a delta-connected system
28.7 Power in a three-phase system with a balanced load
28.8 Measurement of active power in a three-phase, three-wire system
28.9 Power factor measurement by means of two wattmeters
28.10 Two-phase systems
Summary of important formulae
Terms and concepts
29 Transformers
29.1 Introduction
29.2 Core factors
29.3 Principle of action of a transformer
29.4 EMF equation of a transformer
29.5 Phasor diagram for a transformer on no load
29.6 Phasor diagram for an ideal loaded transformer
29.7 Useful and leakage fluxes in a transformer
29.8 Leakage flux responsible for the inductive reactance of a transformer
29.9 Methods of reducing leakage flux
29.10 Equivalent circuit of a transformer
29.11 Phasor diagram for a transformer on load
29.12 Approximate equivalent circuit of a transformer
29.13 Simplification of the approximate equivalent circuit of a transformer
29.14 Voltage regulation of a transformer
29.15 Efficiency of a transformer
29.16 Condition for maximum efficiency of a transformer
29.17 Open-circuit and short-circuit tests on a transformer
29.18 Calculation of efficiency from the open-circuit and short-circuit tests
29.19 Calculation of the voltage regulation from the short-circuit test
29.20 Three-phase core-type transformers
29.21 Auto-transformers
29.22 Current transformers
29.23 Waveform of the magnetizing current of a transformer
29.24 Air-cored transformer
Summary of important formulae
Terms and concepts
30 Introduction to Machine Theory
30.1 The role of the electrical machine
30.2 Conversion process in a machine
30.3 Methods of analysis of machine performance
30.4 Magnetic field energy
30.5 Simple analysis of force of alignment
30.6 Energy balance
30.7 Division of converted energy and power
30.8 Force of alignment between parallel magnetized surfaces
30.9 Rotary motion
30.10 Reluctance motor
30.11 Doubly excited rotating machines
Summary of important formulae
Terms and concepts
31 AC Synchronous Machine Windings
31.1 General arrangement of synchronous machines
31.2 Types of rotor construction
31.3 Stator windings
31.4 Expression for the e.m.f. of a stator winding
31.5 Production of rotating magnetic flux by three-phase currents
31.6 Analysis of the resultant flux due to three-phase currents
31.7 Reversal of direction of rotation of the magnetic flux
Summary of important formulae
Terms and concepts
32 Characteristics of AC Synchronous Machines
32.1 Armature reaction in a three-phase synchronous generator
32.2 Voltage regulation of a synchronous generator
32.3 Synchronous impedance
32.4 Parallel operation of synchronous generators
32.5 Three-phase synchronous motor: principle of action
32.6 Advantages and disadvantages of the synchronous motor
Terms and concepts
33 Induction Motors
33.1 Principle of action
33.2 Frequency of rotor e.m.f. and current
33.3 The equivalent circuit of the three-phase induction motor
33.4 Mechanical power and torque
33.5 The torque/speed curve and effect of rotor resistance
33.6 Experimental tests to obtain motor equivalent circuit parameters
33.7 Starting torque
33.8 Starting of a three-phase induction motor fitted with a cage rotor
33.9 Comparison of cage and slip-ring rotors
33.10 Braking
33.11 Single-phase induction motors
33.12 Capacitor-run induction motors
33.13 Split-phase motors
33.14 Shaded-pole motors
33.15 Variable speed operation of induction motors
Summary of important formulae
Terms and concepts
34 Electrical Energy Systems
34.1 Energy units
34.2 Forms of energy
34.3 Energy conversion and quality of energy
34.4 Demand for electricity and the National Grid
34.5 Generating plant
34.6 Nuclear power
34.7 Renewable energy
34.8 Distributed/Embedded generation
34.9 Demand management
34.10 The cost of generating electricity
Summary of important formulae
Terms and concepts
35 Power Systems
35.1 System representation
35.2 Power system analysis
35.3 Voltage-drop calculations
35.4 The medium-length line
35.5 The per-unit method
35.6 Per-unit impedance
35.7 Base power – SB or MV AB
35.8 Faults in a power system
35.9 Representation of a grid connection
35.10 Transmission Line effects
Summary of important formulae
Terms and concepts
36 Direct-current Machines
36.1 General arrangement of a d.c. machine
36.2 Double-layer drum windings
36.3 Calculation of e.m.f. generated in an armature winding
36.4 Armature reaction
36.5 Armature reaction in a d.c. motor
36.6 Commutation
Summary of important formulae
Terms and concepts
37 Direct-current Motors
37.1 Armature and field connections
37.2 A d.c. machine as generator or motor
37.3 Speed of a motor
37.4 Torque of an electric motor
37.5 Speed characteristics of electric motors
37.6 Torque characteristics of electric motors
37.7 Speed control of d.c. motors
Summary of important formulae
Terms and concepts
38 Control System Motors
38.1 Review
38.2 Motors for regulators
38.3 RPC system requirements
38.4 Geneva cam
38.5 The stepping (or stepper) motor
38.6 The variable-reluctance motor
38.7 The hybrid stepping motor
38.8 Drive circuits
Terms and concepts
39 Motor Selection and Efficiency
39.1 Selecting a motor
39.2 Speed
39.3 Power rating and duty cycles
39.4 Load torques
39.5 The motor and its environment
39.6 Machine efficiency
39.7 Hysteresis
39.8 Current-ring theory of magnetism
39.9 Hysteresis loss
39.10 Losses in motors and generators
39.11 Efficiency of a d.c. motor
39.12 Approximate condition for maximum efficiency
39.13 Determination of efficiency
Terms and concepts
40 Power Electronics
40.1 Introductory
40.2 Thyristor
40.3 Some thyristor circuits
40.4 Limitations to thyristor operation
40.5 The thyristor in practice
40.6 The fully controlled a.c./d.c. converter
40.7 AC/DC inversion
40.8 Switching devices in inverters
40.9 Three-phase rectifier networks
40.10 The three-phase fully controlled converter
40.11 Inverter-fed induction motors
40.12 Soft-starting induction motors
40.13 DC to DC conversion switched-mode power supplies
Summary of important formulae
Terms and concepts
Section 4 Measurements, Sensing and Actuation
41 Control Systems, Sensors and Actuators
41.1 Introduction
41.2 Open-loop and closed-loop systems
41.3 Damping
41.4 Components of a control system
41.5 Transfer function
41.6 Regulators and servomechanisms
41.7 Types of control
41.8 Sensors
41.9 Actuators
Terms and concepts
42 Electronic Measuring Instruments and Devices
42.1 Introduction to analogue and electronic instruments
42.2 Digital electronic voltmeters
42.3 Digital electronic ammeters and wattmeters
42.4 Graphical display devices
42.5 The vacuum diode
42.6 The vacuum triode
42.7 Modern applications of vacuum-tube technology
42.8 Cathode-ray tube
42.9 Deflecting systems of a cathode-ray tube
42.10 Cathode-ray oscilloscope
42.11 Digital oscilloscope
42.12 Use of the oscilloscope in waveform measurement
42.13 Oscilloscope connection
Terms and concepts
Appendix: Symbols, Abbreviations, Definitions and Diagrammatic Symbols
Answers to Exercises

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