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Download Fundamentals of Business Statistics – J. K. Sharma written by J.K. Sharma in PDF format. This book is under the category Business and bearing the isbn/isbn13 number 8131730654/9788131730652. You may reffer the table below for additional details of the book.

## Description

*Sharma’s Fundamentals of Business Statistics (PDF)* is a comprehensive textbook for courses in quantitative methods and business statistics. Designed for college and university students of B.Com.; BBA; BA (Eco); BCA; and similar other undergraduate courses; this ebook focuses on enhancing the knowledge of fundamental techniques and their application to problem-solving through numerous solved examples.

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## Additional information

book-author | J.K. Sharma |
---|---|

publisher | Pearson Education India |

file-type | |

pages | 504 pages |

language | English |

asin | B00CQ4Q0AW |

isbn10 | 8131730654 |

isbn13 | 9788131730652 |

## Table of contents

Table of contents :

Cover

Fundamentals of Business Statistics

Copyright

Content

Preface

About the Author

Statistics: An Overview

Reasons for Learning Statistics

Growth and Development of Statistics

Statistics Defined

Types of Statistical Methods

Importance and Scope of Statistics

Statistics and the State

Statistics in Economics

Statistics in Business Management

Statistics in Physical Sciences

Statistics in Social Sciences

Statistics in Medical Sciences

Statistics and Computers

Limitations of Statistics

Statistics Does Not Study Qualitative Phenomena

Statistics Does Not Study Individuals

Statistics Can Be Misused

Conceptual Questions

Need for Data

Types of Data

Sources of Data

Primary Data Sources

Secondary Data Sources

Chapter Concepts Quiz

Glossary of Terms

Data Classification, Tabulation and Presentation

Introduction

Classification of Data

Requisites of Ideal Classification

Basis of Classification

Organizing Data Using Data Array

Frequency Distribution

Methods of Data Classification

Bivariate Frequency Distribution

Types of Frequency Distributions

Conceptual Questions

Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Tabulation of Data

Objectives of Tabulation

Parts of a Table

Conceptual Questions

Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Graphical Presentation of Data

Functions of a Graph

Advantages and Limitations of Diagrams

General Rules for Drawing Diagrams

Types of Diagrams

One-Dimensional Diagrams

Two-Dimensional Diagrams

Three-Dimensional Diagrams

Pictograms or Ideographs

Cartograms or Statistical Maps

Conceptual Questions

Self-Practice Problems

Formulae Used

Chapter Concepts Quiz

Review Self-Practice Problems

Glossary of Terms

Measures of Entral Tendency

Introduction

Objectives of Averaging

Requisites of a Measure of Central Tendency

Measures of Central Tendency

Mathematical Averages

Arithmetic Mean of Ungrouped (or Raw) Data

Arithmetic Mean of Grouped (or Classified) Data

Some Special Types of Problems and Their Solutions

Advantages and Disadvantages of Arithmetic Mean

Weighted Arithmetic Mean

Conceptual Questions

Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Geometric Mean

Combined Geometric Mean

Weighted Geometric Mean

Advantages, Disadvantages, and Applications of G.M.

Conceptual Questions

Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Harmonic Mean

Advantages, Disadvantages, and Applications of H.M.

Relationship among A.M., G.M., and H.M.

Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Averages of Position

Median

Advantages, Disadvantages, and Applications of Median

Partition Values—Quartiles, Deciles, and Percentiles

Graphical Method for Calculating Partition Values

Conceptual Questions

Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Mode

Graphical Method for Calculating Mode Value

Advantages and Disadvantages of Mode Value

Relationship Between Mean, Median, and Mode

Comparison Between Measures of Central Tendency

Conceptual Questions

Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Formulae Used

Chapter Concepts Quiz

Review Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Glossary of Terms

Measures of Dispersion

Introduction

Significance of Measuring Dispersion

Essential Requisites for a Measure of Variation

Classification of Measures of Dispersion

Distance Measures

Range

Interquartile Range or Deviation

Conceptual Questions

Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Average Deviation Measures

Mean Absolute Deviation

Variance and Standard Deviation

Mathematical Properties of Standard Deviation

Coefficient of Variation

Conceptual Questions

Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Formulae Used

Chapter Concepts Quizss

Review Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Glossary of Terms

Skewness and Kurtosis

Introduction

Measures of Skewness

Relative Measures of Skewness

Conceptual Questions

Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Kurtosis

Measures of Kurtosis

Conceptual Questions

Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Formulae Used

Review Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Glossary of Terms

Probability and Probability Distributions

Introduction

Concepts of Probability

Random Experiment

Sample Space

Event Types

Definition of Probability

Classical Approach

Relative Frequency Approach

Subjective Approach

Fundamental Rules of Probability

Glossary of Probability Terms

Combinations and Permutations

Conceptual Questions

Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Rules of Probability and Algebra of Events

Rules of Addition

Rules of Multiplication

Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Bayes’ Theorem

Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Probability Distributions

Expected Value and Variance of a Random Variable

Properties of Expected Value and Variance

Conceptual Questions

Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Discrete Probability Distributions

Binomial Probability Distribution

Conceptual Questions

Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Poisson Probability Distribution

Conceptual Questions

Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Continuous Probability Distributions

Normal Probability Distribution Function

Conceptual Questions

Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Formulae Used

Chapter Concepts Quiz

Review Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Glossary of Terms

Sampling and Sampling Distributions

Introduction

Reasons of Sample Survey

Population Parameters and Sample Statistics

Sampling Methods

Probability Sampling Methods

Non-Random Sampling Methods

Sampling Distributions

Conceptual Questions

Sampling Distribution of Sample Mean

Sampling Distribution of Mean When Population Has Normal Distribution

Sampling Distribution of Difference Between Two Sample Means

Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Sampling Distribution of Sample Proportion

Sampling Distribution of the Difference of Two Proportions

Self Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Formulae Used

Chapter Concepts Quiz

Review Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Glossary of Terms

Hypothesis Testing

Introduction

General Procedure for Hypothesis Testing

Direction of the Hypothesis

Errors in Hypothesis Testing

Conceptual Questions

Hypothesis Testing for Single Population Mean

Hypothesis Testing for Difference Between Two Population Means

Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Hypothesis Testing for Single Population Proportion

Hypothesis Testing for Difference Between Two

Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Hypothesis Testing for Population Mean with Small Samples

Hypothesis Testing for Single Population Mean

Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Hypothesis Testing Based on F-Distribution

Self-Practice Problems

Comparing Two Population Variances

Hints and Answers

Formulae Used

Chapter Concepts Quiz

Review Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Glossary of Terms

Correlation Analysis

Introduction

Significance of Measuring Correlation

Correlation and Causation

Types of Correlations

Positive and Negative Correlation

Linear and Non-Linear Correlation

Simple, Partial, and Multiple Correlation

Methods of Correlation Analysis

Scatter Diagram Method

Karl Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient

Probable Error and Standard Error of Coefficient of Correlation

The Coefficient of Determination

Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient

Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Conceptual Questions

Formulae Used

Chapter Concepts Quiz

Review Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Regression Analysis

Introduction

Advantages of Regression Analysis

Parameters of Simple Linear Regression Model

Regression Coefficients

Methods to Determine Regression Coefficients

Least Squares Normal Equations

Deviations Method

Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Conceptual Questions

Formulae Used

Chapter Concepts Quiz

Review Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Forecasting and Time Series Analysis

Introduction

Forecasting Methods

Quantitative Forecasting Methods

Qualitative Forecasting Methods

Time Series Analysis

Objectives of Time Series Analysis

Time Series Patterns

Components of a Time Series

Time Series Decomposition Models

Multiplicative Model

Additive Model

Conceptual Questions

Quantitative Forecasting Methods

Freehand (or Graphical) Method

Smoothing Methods

Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Trend Projection Methods

Linear Trend Model

Exponential Trend Model

Changing the Origin and Scale of Equations

Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Measurement of Seasonal Effects

Seasonal Index

Method of Simple Averages

Ratio-to-Trend Method

Ratio-to-Moving Average Method

Link Relative Method

Measurement of Cyclical Variations—Residual Method

Measurement of Irregular Variations

Conceptual Questions

Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Formulae Used

Review Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Glossary of Terms

Index Numbers

Introduction

Index Number Defined

Types of Index Numbers

Characteristics and Uses of Index Numbers

Characteristics of Index Numbers

Uses of Index Numbers

Conceptual Questions

Methods for Construction of Price Indexes

Unweighted Price Indexes

Single Price Index

Aggregate Price Index

Average Price Relative Index

Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Weighted Price Indexes

Weighted Aggregate Price Index

Weighted Average of Price Relative Index

Quantity or Volume Indexes

Value Indexes

Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Tests of Adequacy of Indexes

Time Reversal Test

Factor Reversal Test

Circular Test

Chain Indexes

Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Consumer Price Indexes

Uses of Consumer Price Index Number

Construction of a Consumer Price Index

Conceptual Questions

Formulae Used

Chapter Concepts Quiz

Review Self-Practice Problems

Hints and Answers

Glossary of Terms

Appendices

Table A1: Poisson Probabilities

Table A2: Binomial Coefficients

Table A3: Normal Distribution

Table A4: Critical Values of t-Distribution

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