Introduction to General; Organic and Biochemistry (12th Edition)


Download Introduction to General; Organic and Biochemistry (12th Edition) written by Frederick A. Bettelheim, William H. Brown, Mary K. Campbell, Shawn O. Farrell, Omar Torres in PDF format. This book is under the category Biochemistry and bearing the isbn/isbn13 number 1337571350/9781337571357/ 9781337571456. You may reffer the table below for additional details of the book.


Introduction To General; Organic; And Biochemistry; 12th Edition; (PDF) provides health science students with a strong focus on many current issues; a pedagogically rich framework; a wide variety of biological and medical applications; a visually dynamic art program; an exceptionally strong and varied practice; and end-of-chapter problems. Updated and revised throughout; this latest 12th edition now includes new content; updated and new Chemical Connections; revised and new problems; and more. Most end-of-chapter problems are available in the OWLv2 online learning solution.

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Frederick A. Bettelheim, William H. Brown, Mary K. Campbell, Shawn O. Farrell, Omar Torres


Cengage Learning; 12th edition




912 pages








9781337571357/ 9781337571456

Table of contents

Table of contents :
Contents in Brief
About the Cover
Health-Related Topics
Chapter 1: Matter, Energy, and Measurement
1.1 Chemistry and the Study of Matter
1.2 The Scientific Method
1.3 Reporting Numbers in Science
1.4 Making Measurements
1.5 Unit Conversions
1.6 States of Matter
1.7 Density and Specific Gravity
1.8 Describing the Various Forms of Energy
Chapter Summary
Chapter 2: Atoms
2.1 Composition of Matter
2.2 Classifying Matter
2.3 Postulates of Dalton’s Atomic Theory
2.4 Composition of Atoms
2.5 The Periodic Table
2.6 Arrangement of Electrons in an Atom
2.7 Electron Configuration and the Periodic Table
2.8 Periodic Properties
Chapter Summary
Chapter 3: Chemical Bonds
3.1 The Octet Rule
3.2 Naming Anions and Cations
3.3 The Two Major Types of Chemical Bonds
3.4 An Ionic Bond
3.5 Naming Ionic Compounds
3.6 A Covalent Bond
3.7 Naming Binary Covalent Compounds
3.8 Resonance
3.9 Predicting Bond Angles in Covalent Molecules
3.10 Determining If a Molecule Is Polar
Chapter Summary
Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions and Energy Calculations
4.1 The Chemical Reaction
4.2 Balancing Chemical Equations
4.3 Predicting Whether Ions in Aqueous Solution Will React with Each Other
4.4 Oxidation and Reduction Reactions
4.5 Formula Weights and Molecular Weights
4.6 The Mole and Calculating Mass Relationships
4.7 Calculating Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions
4.8 Describing Heat and the Ways in Which It Is Transferred
4.9 Heat of Reaction
Chapter Summary
Chapter 5: Gases, Liquids, and Solids
5.1 Introduction to the Three States of Matter
5.2 Gas Pressure and Measurements
5.3 The Behavior of Gases
5.4 Avogadro’s Law and the Ideal Gas Law
5.5 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures
5.6 The Kinetic Molecular Theory
5.7 Types of Intermolecular Attractive Forces
5.8 The Behavior of Liquids at the Molecular Level
Chapter Summary
Chapter 6: Solutions and Colloids
6.1 Introduction to Mixtures
6.2 The Most Common Types of Solutions
6.3 The Distinguishing Characteristics of Solutions
6.4 Factors Affecting Solubility
6.5 The Most Common Units for Concentration
6.6 Water as a Good Solvent
6.7 Colloids
6.8 Colligative Properties
Chapter Summary
Chapter 7: Reaction Rates and Chemical Equilibrium
7.1 Measuring Reaction Rates
7.2 Molecular Collisions and Reactions
7.3 Activation Energy and Reaction Rate
7.4 Rate of a Chemical Reaction
7.5 Equilibrium
7.6 The Equilibrium Constant
7.7 Le Chatelier’s Principle
Chapter Summary
Chapter 8: Acids and Bases
8.1 Acids and Bases
8.2 Defining the Strength of Acids and Bases
8.3 Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs
8.4 The Position of Equilibriumin an Acid-Base Reaction
8.5 Acid Ionization Constants
8.6 Properties of Acids and Bases
8.7 Acidic and Basic Properties of Pure Water
8.8 pH and pOH
8.9 Using Titrations to Calculate Concentration
8.10 Buffers
8.11 Calculating the pH of a Buffer
8.12 TRIS, HEPES, and Other Biochemical Buffers
Chapter Summary
Chapter 9: Nuclear Chemistry
9.1 Discovery of Radioactivity
9.2 Defining Radioactivity
9.3 Nucleus and Radioactivity
9.4 Nuclear Half-Life
9.5 Detecting and Measuring Nuclear Radiation
9.6 Radiation Dosimetry and Human Health
9.7 Nuclear Medicine
9.8 Nuclear Fusion
9.9 Nuclear Fission and Atomic Energy
Chapter Summary
Summary of Key Reactions
Chapter 10: Organic Chemistry
10.1 Introduction to Organic Chemistry
10.2 Obtaining Organic Compounds
10.3 Writing Structural Formulas of Organic Compounds
10.4 Functional Groups
Chapter Summary
Chapter 11: Alkanes
11.1 Introduction to Alkanes
11.2 Writing Structural Formulas of Alkanes
11.3 Constitutional Isomers
11.4 Naming Alkanes
11.5 Obtaining Alkanes
11.6 Cycloalkanes
11.7 Shapes of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes
11.8 Cis-Trans Isomerism in Cycloalkanes
11.9 Physical Properties of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes
11.10 Characteristic Reactions of Alkanes
11.11 Some Important Haloalkanes
Chapter Summary
Summary of Key Reactions
Chapter 12: Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds
12.1 Introduction to Alkenes and Alkynes
12.2 Structures of Alkenes and Alkynes
12.3 Naming Alkenes and Alkynes
12.4 Physical Properties of Alkenes and Alkynes
12.5 Characteristic Reactions of Alkenes
12.6 Important Polymerization Reactions of Ethylene and Substituted Ethylenes
12.7 Structure of Benzene
12.8 Naming Aromatic Compounds
12.9 Reactions of Benzene and Its Derivatives
12.10 Phenols
Chapter Summary
Summary of Key Reactions
Chapter 13: Alcohols, Ethers, and Thiols
13.1 Structures, Names, and Physical Properties of Alcohols
13.2 Characteristic Reactions of Alcohols
13.3 Structures, Names, and Physical Properties of Ethers
13.4 Structures, Names, and Physical Properties of Thiols
13.5 Commercially Important Alcohols
Chapter Summary
Summary of Key Reactions
Chapter 14: Chirality: The Handedness of Molecules
14.1 Enantiomerism
14.2 Specifying the Configuration of a Stereocenter
14.3 Possible Stereoisomers for Molecules with Two or More Stereocenters
14.4 Optical Activity and Chirality in the Laboratory
14.5 Significance of Chirality in the Biological World
Chapter Summary
Chapter 15: Amines
15.1 Structure of Amines
15.2 Names of Amines
15.3 Physical Properties of Amines
15.4 Basicity of Amines
15.5 Characteristic Reactions of Amines
Chapter Summary
Summary of Key Reactions
Chapter 16: Aldehydes and Ketones
16.1 Aldehydes and Ketones
16.2 Naming Aldehydes and Ketones
16.3 Physical Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones
16.4 Characteristic Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones
16.5 Keto-Enol Tautomerism
Chapter Summary
Summary of Key Reactions
Chapter 17: Carboxylic Acids
17.1 Carboxylic Acids
17.2 Names of Carboxylic Acids
17.3 Physical Properties of Carboxylic Acids
17.4 Soaps and Detergents
17.5 Characteristic Reactions of Carboxylic Acids
Chapter Summary
Summary of Key Reactions
Chapter 18: Carboxylic Anhydrides, Esters, and Amides
18.1 Carboxylic Anhydrides, Esters, and Amides
18.2 Preparation of Esters
18.3 Preparation of Amides
18.4 Characteristic Reactions of Anhydrides, Esters, and Amides
18.5 Phosphoric Anhydrides and Phosphoric Esters
18.6 Step-Growth Polymerization
Chapter Summary
Summary of Key Reactions
Chapter 19: Carbohydrates
19.1 Monosaccharides: The Simplest Carbohydrates
19.2 Cyclic Structures of Monosaccharides
19.3 Characteristic Reactions of Monosaccharides
19.4 Disaccharides and Oligosaccharides
19.5 Polysaccharides
19.6 Acidic Polysaccharides
Chapter Summary
Summary of Key Reactions
Chapter 20: Lipids
20.1 Importance of Lipids
20.2 Fatty Acids
20.3 Triglyceride Structure
20.4 Properties of Triglycerides
20.5 Structures of Complex Lipids
20.6 Lipids and Membrane Structure
20.7 Glycerophospholipids
20.8 Sphingolipids
20.9 Glycolipids
20.10 Steroids
20.11 Physiological Roles of Steroid Hormones
20.12 Bile Salts
20.13 Prostaglandins, Thromboxanes, and Leukotrienes
20.14 Molecular Transport across Membranes
Chapter Summary
Chapter 21: Proteins
21.1 The Many Functions of Proteins
21.2 Amino Acids
21.3 Amino Acids Exist as Zwitterions
21.4 Amino Acids Combine to Form Proteins
21.5 Amino Acid Characteristics
21.6 Uncommon Amino Acids
21.7 Protein Properties
21.8 Protein Primary Structure
21.9 Protein Secondary Structure
21.10 Protein Tertiary Structure
21.11 Protein Quaternary Structure
21.12 Protein Denaturation
Chapter Summary
Chapter 22: Enzymes
22.1 Enzymes are Biological Catalysts
22.2 Enzyme Nomenclature
22.3 Enzyme Activity
22.4 Enzyme Mechanisms
22.5 Enzyme Regulation
22.6 Enzymes in Medicine
Chapter Summary
Chapter 23: Chemical Communications: Neurotransmitters and Hormones
23.1 Cells Communicate in Many Ways
23.2 Neurotransmitters and Hormones
23.3 Cholinergic Messengers
23.4 Amino Acid Neurotransmitters
23.5 Adrenergic Messengers
23.6 Peptides in Chemical Communications
23.7 Steroid Hormone Messengers
23.8 Drugs Affect Chemical Communications
Chapter Summary
Chapter 24: Nucleotides, Nucleic Acids, and Heredity
24.1 DNA and RNA are the Molecules of Heredity
24.2 Nucleic Acids
24.3 The Structure of DNA and RNA
24.4 RNA Types
24.5 Genes
24.6 Medical Applications of RNA
24.7 DNA Replication
24.8 DNA Amplification
Chapter Summary
Chapter 25: Gene Expression and Protein Synthesis
25.1 DNA Leads to RNA and Protein
25.2 Transcription of DNA
25.3 Translation of RNA
25.4 The Genetic Code
25.5 Protein Synthesis
25.6 Gene Regulation
25.7 DNA Mutations
25.8 DNA Manipulation
25.9 Gene Therapy
25.10 Epigenetics
Chapter Summary
Chapter 26: Bioenergetics: How the Body Converts Food to Energy
26.1 The Nature of Metabolism
26.2 Mitochondria and Their Role in Metabolism
26.3 The Principal Compounds of Catabolic Pathways
26.4 The Citric Acid Cycle and in Metabolism
26.5 Electron and H+ Transport
26.6 The Chemiosmotic Pump and ATP Production
26.7 Energy Yield from Aerobic Metabolism
26.8 Conversion of Chemical Energy to Other Forms
Chapter Summary
Chapter 27: Specific Catabolic Pathways:
Carbohydrate, Lipid, and
Protein Metabolism
27.1 The General Outline of Catabolic Pathway
27.2 The Reactions of Glycolysis
27.3 The Energy Yield from Glucose Catabolism
27.4 Glycerol Catabolism
27.5 B-Oxidation of Fatty Acids
27.6 The Energy Yield from Stearic Acid Catabolism
27.7 Ketone Bodies
27.8 Nitrogen Processing in Amino Acid Catabolism
27.9 Carbon Skeleton Processing in Amino Acid Catabolsim
Chapter Summary
Chapter 28: Biosynthetic Pathways
28.1 The General Outline of Biosynthetic Pathways
28.2 Biosynthesis of Carbohydrates
28.3 Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids
28.4 Biosynthesis of Membrane Lipids
28.5 Biosynthesis of Amino Acids
Chapter Summary
Chapter 29: Nutrition
29.1 Nutritional Guidelines
29.2 Counting Calories
29.3 Carbohydrate Digestion
29.4 Fat Digestion
29.5 Protein Digestion
29.6 The Importance of Vitamins, Minerals, and Water
Chapter Summary
Chapter 30: Immunochemistry
30.1 The Body’s Defense against Invasion
30.2 Organs and Cells of the Immune System
30.3 Antigens Stimulate the Immune System
30.4 Immunoglobulins
30.5 T Cells and T-Cell Receptors
30.6 Immunization
30.7 Distinguishing “Self” from “Nonself”
30.8 The Human Immunodeficiency Virus and AIDS
Chapter Summary
Appendix I: Exponential Notation
Appendix II: Significant Figures

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