Introduction to Physical Anthropology (15th Edition)

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Download Introduction to Physical Anthropology (15th Edition) written by Eric J. Bartelink, Russell L. Ciochon, Robert Jurmain, Lynn Kilgore, Wenda Trevathan in PDF format. This book is under the category Anthropology and bearing the isbn/isbn13 number 1337099821; 1337515914; 133711569X/9781337099820/ 9781337115698/ 9781337515917. You may reffer the table below for additional details of the book.

Description

Introduction To Physical Anthropology; 15th Edition; (PDF) brings the research of bodily anthropology to life! With an emphasis on the massive image of human evolution; the fifteenth Edition assists you to grasp the elemental rules of the topic and arrive at an interpretation of the human species and its place within the organic world. Each and each chapter begins with new Student Learning Objectives and a chapter define to allow you to emphasize your research time. Every chapter then ends with an expanded part of

– How Do We Know?

– Followed by a important considering query; designed to assist reinforce your understanding of the ideas.

P.S. Contact us if you’d like Introduction To Physical Anthropology; fifteenth Edition; TestBank; or different instructor sources.

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Additional information

book-author

Eric J. Bartelink, Russell L. Ciochon, Robert Jurmain, Lynn Kilgore, Wenda Trevathan

publisher

Cengage Learning; 15th edition

file-type

PDF

pages

Pages

language

English

isbn10

1337099821; 1337515914; 133711569X

isbn13

9781337099820/ 9781337115698/ 9781337515917

Table of contents


Table of contents :
Cover……Page 1
Tittle Page……Page 4
Copyright……Page 5
Brief Contents……Page 6
Contents……Page 7
Preface……Page 14
Acknowledgments……Page 18
Supplements……Page 20
Chapter 1: Introduction to Physical Anthropology……Page 22
Biocultural Evolution……Page 25
What Is Anthropology?……Page 29
Linguistic Anthropology……Page 30
Physical Anthropology……Page 31
Applied Anthropology……Page 37
Physical Anthropology and the Scientific Method……Page 38
The Anthropological Perspective……Page 40
A Closer: Look Forensic Anthropology in Practice……Page 41
Critical Thinking Questions……Page 42
Chapter 2: The Development of Evolutionary Theory……Page 44
A Brief History of Evolutionary Thought……Page 45
The Scientific Revolution……Page 47
Precursors of the Theory of Evolution……Page 48
The Discovery of Natural Selection……Page 52
In Darwin’s Shadow……Page 57
Natural Selection in Action……Page 58
Natural Selection and Reproductive Success……Page 60
Constraints on Nineteenth-Century Evolutionary Theory……Page 61
Opposition to Evolution Today……Page 62
A Brief History of Opposition to Evolution in the United States……Page 63
At a Glance: The Mechanism of Natural Selection……Page 64
Critical Thinking Questions……Page 66
Chapter 3: The Biological Basis of Life……Page 68
Cells……Page 69
DNA Structure……Page 71
DNA Replication……Page 72
Protein Synthesis……Page 73
What Is a Gene?……Page 76
A Closer Look Noncoding DNA—Not Junk After All……Page 78
Regulatory Genes……Page 79
At a Glance: Coding and Noncoding DNA……Page 80
Mutation: When Genes Change……Page 81
Chromosomes……Page 83
Karyotyping Chromosomes……Page 85
Mitosis……Page 86
Meiosis……Page 88
New Frontiers……Page 91
How Do We Know?……Page 96
Critical Thinking Questions……Page 97
Chapter 4: Heredity and Evolution……Page 100
The Genetic Principles Discovered by Mendel……Page 102
Segregation……Page 103
Dominance and Recessiveness……Page 104
Independent Assortment……Page 105
Mendelian Inheritance in Humans……Page 106
Misconceptions about Dominance and Recessiveness……Page 108
Patterns of Mendelian Inheritance……Page 109
Polygenic Inheritance……Page 113
At a Glance: Mendelian vs. Polygenic Traits……Page 115
Pleiotropy……Page 116
The Modern Synthesis……Page 117
A Current Definition of Evolution……Page 118
Gene Flow……Page 119
Genetic Drift and Founder Effect……Page 121
Natural Selection Is Directional and Acts on Variation……Page 124
Review of Genetics and Evolutionary Factors……Page 127
Summary of Main Topics……Page 128
Critical Thinking Questions……Page 129
Chapter 5: Macroevolution: Processes of Vertebrate and Mammalian Evolution……Page 132
How We Connect: Discovering the Place of Humans in the Natural World……Page 133
Principles of Classification……Page 135
Comparing Evolutionary Systematics with Cladistics……Page 136
A Closer Look Evo-Devo: The Evolution Revolution……Page 137
An Example of Cladistic Analysis: The Evolutionary History of Cars and Trucks……Page 139
Using Cladistics to Interpret Organisms……Page 140
Definition of Species……Page 142
At a Glance: Comparing Two Approaches to Interpretation of Evolutionary Relationships……Page 143
Recognition of Fossil Species……Page 145
Recognition of Fossil Genera……Page 146
What Are Fossils and How Do They Form?……Page 147
Humans Are Vertebrates: Distant Connections through Geological Time……Page 149
A Closer Look Deep Time……Page 151
Humans Are Also Mammals: Closer Connections……Page 153
Adaptive Radiation……Page 155
Generalized and Specialized Characteristics……Page 156
How Do We Know?……Page 157
Summary of Main Topics……Page 158
Critical Thinking Questions……Page 159
Chapter 6: Survey of the Living Primates……Page 162
Primate Characteristics……Page 163
The Senses and the Brain……Page 165
Maturation, Learning, and Behavior……Page 166
Primate Adaptations……Page 167
Evolutionary Factors……Page 168
Diet and Teeth……Page 169
Locomotion……Page 170
Primate Classification……Page 174
Lemurs and Lorises……Page 176
Tarsiers……Page 178
Anthropoids: Monkeys, Apes, and Humans……Page 179
Hominoids: Apes and Humans……Page 185
Endangered Primates……Page 193
A Closer Look: Aye-Ayes: Victims of Derived Traits and Superstition……Page 194
The Bushmeat Trade……Page 198
How Do We Know?……Page 200
Critical Thinking Questions……Page 201
Chapter 7: Primate Behavior……Page 204
The Evolution of Behavior……Page 205
Some Factors That Influence Social Structure……Page 207
A Closer Look: Types of Nonhuman Primate Social Groups……Page 209
Why Be Social?……Page 210
Dominance……Page 211
At a Glance: Primate Social Strategies……Page 212
Communication……Page 213
Aggressive and Affiliative Behaviors within Groups……Page 215
Reproductive Strategies……Page 217
Sexual Selection……Page 218
Is Infanticide a Reproductive Strategy?……Page 219
Mothers, Fathers, and Infants……Page 220
Nonhuman Primate Models for the Evolution of Human Behavior……Page 222
Brain and Body Size……Page 223
Language……Page 225
The Evolution of Language……Page 228
Primate Cultural Behavior……Page 230
At a Glance Evolution of Human Language……Page 231
Conflict between Groups……Page 235
Prosocial Behaviors: Affiliation, Altruism, and Cooperation……Page 237
Altruism……Page 238
The Primate Continuum……Page 240
Summary of Main Topics……Page 241
Critical Thinking Questions……Page 242
Chapter 8: Overview of the Fossil Primates……Page 244
Background to Primate Evolution: Late Mesozoic……Page 245
Primate Origins……Page 246
A Closer Look: Building Family Trees from Genes……Page 247
Made to Order: Archaic Primates……Page 248
Eocene Euprimates……Page 250
Lemur Connections? The Adapoids……Page 252
At a Glance: Key Early Primate Names……Page 253
Tarsier Connections? The Omomyoids……Page 255
Eocene and Oligocene Early Anthropoids……Page 256
A Closer Look: Primate Diversity in the Fayum……Page 258
True Anthropoids……Page 259
Early Platyrrhines: New World Anthropoids……Page 261
A Closer Look: Island Hopping and Primate Evolution……Page 263
Monkeying Around……Page 264
Aping Monkeys……Page 267
At a Glance: Key Early Anthropoid Names……Page 269
At a Glance: Key Fossil Ape Names……Page 272
The African Great Apes……Page 277
Asia’s Lone Great Ape……Page 278
How Do We Know?……Page 279
Critical Thinking Questions……Page 280
Chapter 9: Paleoanthropology: Reconstructing Early Hominin Behavior and Ecology……Page 282
Understanding Our Direct Evolutionary Connections: What’s a Hominin?……Page 283
What’s in a Name?……Page 284
Biocultural Evolution: The Human Capacity for Culture……Page 285
Discovering Human Evolution: The Science of Paleoanthropology……Page 286
A Closer Look: What Were Early Hominins Doing, and How Do We Know……Page 287
Connecting the Dots through Time: Paleoanthropological Dating Methods……Page 291
A Closer Look: Chronometric Dating Estimates……Page 294
Experimental Archaeology……Page 295
Stone Tool (Lithic) Technology……Page 296
Analysis of Bone……Page 297
Why Did Hominins Become Bipedal?……Page 298
How Do We Know?……Page 302
Critical Thinking Questions……Page 303
Chapter 10: Hominin Origins in Africa……Page 306
The Mechanics of Walking on Two Legs……Page 307
A Closer Look: Major Features of Bipedal Locomotion……Page 309
Pre-Australopiths (6.01 to 4.4 mya)……Page 312
Australopiths (4.2 to 1.2 mya)……Page 316
At a Glance: Key Pre-Australopith Discoveries……Page 317
A Closer Look: Cranial Capacity……Page 321
A Contemporaneous and Very DifferentKind of Hominin……Page 322
Later More Derived Australopiths (3.0 to 1.2 mya)……Page 323
New Connections: A Transitional Australopith?……Page 326
Closer Connections: Early Homo (2.0 to 1.4 mya)……Page 329
Interpretations: What Does It All Mean?……Page 330
Seeing the Big Picture: Adaptive Patterns of Early African Hominins……Page 332
How Do We Know?……Page 334
Critical Thinking Questions……Page 335
Chapter 11: The First Dispersal of the Genus Homo: Homo erectus and Contemporaries……Page 338
A New Kind of Hominin……Page 339
Brain Size……Page 340
Cranial Shape……Page 343
The First Homo erectus: Homo erectus from Africa……Page 344
A New Hominin Discovery in South Africa……Page 346
Who Were the Earliest African Emigrants?……Page 347
Homo erectus from Indonesia……Page 349
Homo erectus from China……Page 350
A Closer Look: In Search of Ancient Human Ancestors—and a Little Shade……Page 351
Asian and African Homo erectus: A Comparison……Page 355
Later Homo erectus from Europe……Page 357
Technological Trends During the Time of Homo erectus……Page 359
Seeing the Connections: Interpretations of Homo erectus……Page 360
Something New and Different: The “Little People”……Page 361
How Do We Know?……Page 363
Critical Thinking Questions……Page 364
Chapter 12: Premodern Humans……Page 366
The Pleistocene……Page 367
Dispersal of Middle Pleistocene Hominins……Page 368
Middle Pleistocene Hominins: Terminology……Page 369
Africa……Page 370
Europe……Page 371
At a Glance: Key Premodern Human (H. heidelbergensis) Fossils from Europe……Page 372
At a Glance: Key Premodern Human (H. heidelbergensis) Fossils from Asia……Page 375
Middle Pleistocene Culture……Page 376
Neandertals: Premodern Humans of the Late Pleistocene……Page 377
Western Europe……Page 379
Central Europe……Page 382
Western Asia……Page 384
Surprising Connections: Another Contemporary Hominin?……Page 385
Culture of Neandertals……Page 386
Subsistence……Page 387
Speech and Symbolic Behavior……Page 388
Burials……Page 389
Molecular Connections: The Genetic Evidence……Page 391
Neandertal DNA……Page 392
A Closer Look Are They Human?……Page 393
Seeing Close Human Connections: Understanding Diversity among Premodern Humans……Page 395
Summary of Main Topics……Page 398
Critical Thinking Questions……Page 399
Chapter 13: The Origin and Dispersal of Modern Humans……Page 402
Replacement Models……Page 404
At a Glance: Scenarios of Modern Human Origins……Page 406
At a Glance: Genetic Relationships among Modern Humans, Denisovans, and Neandertals……Page 407
Africa……Page 408
The Near East……Page 411
Asia……Page 413
Central Europe……Page 415
Western Europe……Page 416
Europe……Page 419
Africa……Page 424
A Closer Look: Maybe You Can Take It with You……Page 425
Summary of Upper Paleolithic Culture……Page 426
How Do We Know?……Page 427
Critical Thinking Questions……Page 428
Chapter 14: Modern Human Biology: Patterns of Variation……Page 430
Historical Views of Human Variation……Page 431
The Concept of Race……Page 432
A Closer Look: Racial Purity: A False and Dangerous Ideology……Page 433
Contemporary Interpretations of Human Variation……Page 437
Human Polymorphisms……Page 438
At a Glance: Genetic Polymorphisms Used to Study Human Variation……Page 440
A Closer Look: What DNA Tells Us about Ancient Human Migrations……Page 441
Population Genetics……Page 444
At a Glance: Population Genetics Research……Page 446
Calculating Allele Frequencies……Page 447
A Closer Look: Calculating Allele Frequencies: PTC Tasting in a Hypothetical Population……Page 448
Evolution in Action: Modern Human Populations……Page 449
Human Biocultural Evolution……Page 450
How Do We Know?……Page 453
Critical Thinking Questions……Page 454
Chapter 15: Modern Human Biology: Patterns of Adaptation……Page 456
The Adaptive Significance of Human Variation……Page 457
Solar Radiation and Skin Color……Page 458
The Thermal Environment……Page 463
A Closer Look: Skin Cancer and UV Radiation……Page 465
High Altitude……Page 468
Infectious Disease……Page 470
At a Glance: Zoonoses and Human Infectious Disease……Page 471
The Continuing Impact of Infectious Disease……Page 473
Evidence of Prehistoric Diseases……Page 477
Reconstruction of Prehistoric Behavioral Patterns……Page 480
Summary of Main Topics……Page 482
Critical Thinking Questions……Page 483
Chapter 16: Legacies of Human Evolutionary History: Effects on the Life Course……Page 486
Evolved Biology and Contemporary Lifestyles—Is There a Mismatch?……Page 487
Diet and Nutrition through the Life Course……Page 488
Too Much and Too Little……Page 491
At a Glance: Diet, Lifestyle, and Consequences……Page 492
Other Factors Influencing Growth and Development: Genes, Environment, and Hormones……Page 494
Life History Theory and the Human Life Course……Page 496
Pregnancy, Birth, Infancy, and Childhood……Page 497
Onset of Reproductive Function in Humans……Page 500
Decline in Reproductive Function……Page 501
Aging and Longevity……Page 502
Are We Still Evolving?……Page 506
Summary of Main Topics……Page 507
Critical Thinking Questions……Page 508
Chapter 17: The Human Disconnection……Page 510
Human Impacts on the Planet and on Other Life-Forms……Page 511
Humans and the Impact of Culture……Page 512
Global Climate Change……Page 513
Public Perceptions of Climate Change……Page 514
Earth’s Shrinking Polar Ice……Page 515
Impact on Biodiversity……Page 519
Acceleration of Evolutionary Processes……Page 521
Looking for Solutions……Page 522
Is There Any Good News?……Page 524
Critical Thinking Questions……Page 525
Appendix A: Atlas of Primate Skeletal Anatomy……Page 526
Appendix B: Sexing and Aging the Skeleton……Page 534
Glossary……Page 539
References……Page 550
Index……Page 576

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