Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering: Resource Recovery from Wastes


Download Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering: Resource Recovery from Wastes written by Sunita Varjani, Ashok Pandey, Edgard Gnansounou, Samir Kumar Khanal, Sindhu Raveendran in PDF format. This book is under the category Engineering and bearing the isbn/isbn13 number 444643214/9780444643216. You may reffer the table below for additional details of the book.

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Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering: Resource Recovery from Wastes (PDF) includes the latest and innovative research and technological developments in the biotechnology and bioengineering pertaining to various resource(s) recovery from wastes. The contents are organized into two broader sections covering resource recovery from industrial wastewater and resource recovery from solid wastes. Sections cover bioproducts; energy; electronic wastes; agricultural waste; nutrients; municipal food wastes; and others. The state-of-the-art situation; potential advantages; and limitations are also provided; along with strategies to overcome limitations. This ebook is a useful guide to research demands in solid and liquid waste treatment and management for environmental/economic sustainability.

  • Reviews current information relating to bioremediation
  • Covers municipal food wastes; electronic wastes; and agricultural wastes
  • Contains recent information; clearly illustrated with tables; figures; and pictures
  • Outlines different technological and biological aspects of resource recovery from industrial waste and effluents
  • Provides state-of-art information and applications on microbiological and biotechnological interventions for resource recovery

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Sunita Varjani, Ashok Pandey, Edgard Gnansounou, Samir Kumar Khanal, Sindhu Raveendran


Elsevier; 1st edition




516 pages









Table of contents

Table of contents :
Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Section 1: General
1 – Resource recovery from waste: an introduction
1. Introduction
2. Energy and bioproduct recovery from industrial wastewater
3. Nutrient recovery from industrial wastewater
4. Resource recovery from solid wastes
4.1 Food and municipal wastes
4.2 Phosphorus recovery from solid wastes
4.3 Electronic wastes
4.4 Agricultural and other wastes
4.5 Recovery of metals through bioleaching
5. Conclusions and perspectives
Section 2: Resource recovery from industrial wastewater
Section 2.1: Energy
2 – Methane production and recovery from wastewater
1. Introduction
2. Microbiology and biochemistry of anaerobic digestion
2.1 Hydrolysis
2.2 Acidogenesis
2.3 Acetogenesis
2.4 Methanogenesis
3. Factors influencing the anaerobic digestion process
3.1 Effect of temperature
3.2 Effect of pH
3.3 Effect of alkalinity
3.4 Effect of nutrients
3.5 Effect of volatile fatty acids production
3.6 Effect of ammonia nitrogen
3.7 Effect of sulfur compounds
3.8 Effect of heavy metals
3.9 Effect of cations
4. Anaerobic reactors
4.1 Batch reactor
4.2 Continuous reactors
4.2.1 Anaerobic continuous stirred-tank reactor (anaerobic CSTR)
4.2.2 Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor
4.2.3 Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor
4.2.4 Anaerobic fluidized bed reactor
4.2.5 Anaerobic packed bed reactor
4.2.6 Anaerobic hybrid reactor configuration
5. Recovery of methane
6. Efficiency of an anaerobic reactor
7. Practical concept of green energy
8. Artificial neural network modeling of anaerobic reactors
9. Conclusions and perspectives
3 – Sustainable approach to wastewater treatment and bioelectricity generation using microbial fuel cells
1. Introduction
2. History of wastewater treatment
3. Necessity of wastewater treatment
3.1 Methods involved for the wastewater treatment
4. Issues with non-biological processes
5. The prospect of biochemical processes
5.1 Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) as a Promising Approach
6. System architecture for microbial fuel cells
7. Conclusions and perspectives
4 – Biohydrogen: resource recovery from industrial wastewater
1. Introduction
2. Types of industrial wastewater and its effects on biohydrogen production
2.1 Food processing wastewater
2.2 Agroindustrial wastewater
2.3 Dairy wastewater
2.4 Petrochemical wastewater
2.5 Brewery industries wastewater
2.6 Sugar confectionery wastewater
2.7 Pharmaceutical wastewater
2.8 Textile industry wastewater
3. Microbial cultures for biohydrogen production
3.1 Pure cultures
3.2 Coculture
3.3 Mixed culture
3.4 Genetically modified culture
4. Factors affecting hydrogen production
4.1 Temperature
4.2 pH
4.3 Reactor configuration
4.4 Hydrogen partial pressure
4.5 Organic loading rate
4.6 Hydraulic retention time
4.7 Nutrients
4.8 Effect of inoculum pretreatment
5. Different reactor configurations for biohydrogen production
5.1 Continuously stirred-tank reactors
5.2 Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket
5.3 Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor
5.4 Anaerobic fluidized bed reactors
6. Novel approaches/strategies to enhance biohydrogen production
6.1 Integrated biorefineries—two-stage fermentation
6.2 Microbial electrolysis cells
6.3 Culture enrichment
6.4 Bioaugmentation
6.5 Immobilized cell system
6.6 Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates
7. Economic aspects and scalability of biohydrogen production
7.1 Economic evaluation of dark fermentation
7.2 Economic evaluation of combined systems
7.3 Continuous scaled-up process
8. Conclusions and perspectives
Section 2.2: Bioproducts
5 – Bioflocculated industrial wastewater for ameliorating bioflocculant production
1. Introduction
2. Biopolymer’s interventions in wastewater treatment
3. Flocculation and types of flocculants
3.1 Chemical flocculants
3.2 Natural flocculants
4. Bacterial bioflocculants
4.1 Source of bioflocculant-producing bacteria
4.2 Production of bacterial bioflocculants
4.3 Screening of bioflocculant-producing strains
4.4 Recovery and purification of bioflocculant
5. Applications of bacterial bioflocculants
5.1 Water treatment
5.2 Wastewater treatment
5.3 Dye removal
5.4 Drug removal
5.5 Heavy metal removal
5.6 Sludge dewatering
5.7 Microalgal biomass recovery
5.8 Water treatment for the removal of microorganism
5.9 Synthesis of nanoparticles
6. Factors affecting bioflocculant production and flocculating activity
6.1 Factors affecting bioflocculant production
6.2 Factors affecting bioflocculation process in terms of flocculating activity
6.2.1 pH
6.2.2 Temperature
6.2.3 Metal ions
6.2.4 Dose of bioflocculant
6.2.5 Molecular weight of bioflocculant
6.2.6 Chemical nature of bioflocculant
7. Major limitations of commercial bioflocculant production
8. Industrial wastewaters as an inexpensive substrate
8.1 Implementation of industrial wastewaters, pretreatments, and lab-scale production of bioflocculants
8.1.1 Molasses
8.1.2 Fermenting liquors, brewery wastewaters
9. Starch processing industrial wastewaters as the best alternative
10. Conclusions and perspectives
6 – Recovery of chitosan from natural biotic waste
1. Introduction
2. Chitin
2.1 Structure of chitin
2.2 Allomorphs of chitin
2.3 Sources of chitin
2.4 Solubility of chitin
2.5 Derivatives of chitin
3. Chitosan
3.1 Structure of chitosan
3.2 Solubility of chitosan
3.3 Degree of deacetylation of chitosan
3.4 Derivatives of chitosan
4. Chitosan characterisation
5. Recovery of chitosan from various sources
6. Extraction of chitin from natural biotic waste
6.1 Chemical extraction
6.1.1 Chemical demineralization
6.1.2 Chemical deproteinization
6.1.3 Decolorizing and dewatering
6.2 Biological extraction
6.2.1 Enzymatic demineralization
6.2.2 Enzymatic deproteinization
6.2.3 Fermentation
7. Chitosan from chitin
7.1 Chemical deacetylation
7.2 Enzymatic deacetylation
8. Applications of chitin and chitosan
9. Conclusions and perspectives
Section 2.3: Nutrients
7 – Biological nitrogen recovery from industrial wastewater
1. Introduction
2. Microbial proteins from biomass cultivated using nitrogen-rich industrial wastewaters
3. Fertilizer production from algae cultivated from nitrogen-rich industrial wastewaters
4. Nitrous oxide recovery from nitrogen-rich industrial wastewaters
5. Ammonium recovery as enriched ammonia gas
6. Struvite from ammonium crystallization
7. Membrane enrichment of ammonium from wastewaters
8. Conclusions and perspectives
8 – Recovery of volatile fatty acids from sewage sludge through anaerobic fermentation
1. Introduction
2. Mechanisms and controlling strategies for VFA production from sewage sludge
2.1 Mechanism for VFA production from sewage sludge
2.2 Controlling strategies for VFA production from sewage sludge
2.2.1 Methanogenesis inhibitions
2.2.2 Organics degradation acceleration
2.2.3 VFA quality management
3. Current trends for VFA production from sludge anaerobic fermentation
3.1 Pretreatment of sewage sludge
3.1.1 Advantages and disadvantages of sewage sludge pretreatments
3.1.2 Novel trends of sludge pretreatment technologies
3.2 Cofermentation of sewage sludge with carbon-rich organics for VFA production
3.3 High-solid fermentation of sewage sludge
3.4 Liquid fermentation of sewage sludge
3.5 Developments of novel fermenters for VFA production from sewage sludge
3.5.1 Anaerobic membrane bioreactor for sludge fermentation to enhance VFA production
3.5.2 Continuous stirred tank reactor for high-solid sludge fermentation
3.5.3 Configurations for liquid fermentation of sewage sludge
4. Applications of VFAs from sewage sludge fermentation
4.1 Carbon source for biological nitrogen and phosphorus removals in wastewater treatment
4.2 Raw materials for chemical and energy productions
5. Conclusions and perspectives
Section 3: Resource recovery from solid wastes
Section 3.1: Municipal and food wastes
9 – Waste to wealth: valorization of food waste for the production of fuels and chemicals
1. Introduction
2. Food waste sources
3. Value-added products from food and kitchen waste
3.1 Fuels
3.1.1 Bioethanol
3.1.2 Biohydrogen
3.1.3 Biobutanol
3.1.4 Biodiesel
3.1.5 Bioelectricity
3.2 Chemicals
3.2.1 Organic acids Acetic acid Fumaric acid Citric acid Succinic acid Lactic acid Propionic acid Gluconic acid
3.2.2 Biopolymer
3.2.3 Vanillin
3.2.4 Xanthan gum
3.2.5 Sugars
3.2.6 Chitosan
3.2.7 Wax esters
3.2.8 Pectin
3.2.9 Orange peel oil
3.2.10 Biosurfactants
3.2.11 Quercetin
3.2.12 Docosahexaenoic acid
3.2.13 Pigments
3.2.14 Vinegar
3.2.15 Corrosion inhibitors
4. Conclusions and perspectives
10 – Approaches for recovering bio-based products from municipal and industrial wastes
1. Introduction
1.1 Categories of wastes according to their origin and type
2. Industrial wastes
2.1 Types of industrial pollutants
2.1.1 Food industry
2.1.2 Organic chemical industry
2.1.3 Iron and steel industry
3. Municipal wastes
3.1 Municipal solid wastes—types
3.1.1 Industrial solid wastes
3.1.2 Rural solid wastes
4. Waste disposal statistics in India/global forum
5. Current trends in treating wastes
5.1 Key component of solid waste management
6. Methods involved for waste management
6.1 Reduce
6.2 Reuse
6.3 Recycling
7. Waste to energy
7.1 Gasification
7.2 Mass burn incineration
7.3 Composting
7.3.1 Mechanism of composting
8. Limitations of municipal and industrial waste processing
9. Applications of bio-based products from municipal and industrial waste
10. Conclusions and perspectives
11 – Municipal solid waste to clean energy system: a contribution toward sustainable development
1. Introduction
2. Municipal solid waste generation
2.1 Current status of MSW in India
2.2 Classification of wastes
3. Waste to energy technologies
3.1 Biological treatment technologies
3.1.1 Anaerobic digestion technologies
3.2 Thermal treatment technologies
3.2.1 Pyrolysis
3.2.2 Gasification
3.2.3 Incineration
3.3 Plasma-based techniques
3.4 Landfill gas utilization
4. Government rules and initiatives toward MSWM in India
4.1 Acts for the management of solid wastes
5. Challenges in conversion of waste to energy
6. Conclusions and perspectives
12 – Food waste valorization for biopolymer production
1. Introduction
1.1 Global perspective and current situation of food waste
1.2 Food waste: a valuable resource for production of biofuels, chemicals, and biopolymers
1.3 Valorization of food waste to biopolymers
2. Composition of food waste resource in synthesis of biopolymers
2.1 Cellulose
2.2 Lignin
2.3 Chitin and chitosan
2.4 Oils
2.5 Protein
2.6 Starch
2.7 Sugars
3. Applications of biopolymers
3.1 Scaffolds in bone tissue engineering
3.2 Biopolymer membranes in separation, pervaporation, and application in fuel cell
3.3 Adhesive and lubricative agents in biomedical field
3.4 Pharmaceutical applications in nanoscale drug delivery
3.5 Biopolymers as food packing material
4. Conclusions and perspectives
13 – Resource recovery from inert municipal waste
1. Introduction
1.1 Inert waste
2. Composition of various types of inert waste
2.1 Concrete and demolition waste
2.2 Dirt and debris
2.3 Glass
3. Recycled concrete aggregate
3.1 Methods for enhancing the performance of recycled concrete aggregate
3.1.1 Removal of adhered mortar Mechanical grinding Presoaking in water Presoaking in acid
3.1.2 Strengthening of adhered mortar Polymer emulsion Pozzolan slurry Calcium carbonate biodeposition Sodium silicate solution
3.1.3 Carbonation
4. Use of waste glass as low-cost adsorbent material
5. Conclusions and perspectives
14 – Phosphorus (P) recovery and reuse as fertilizer from incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA)
1. Introduction
2. Characteristics and metal(loid) leachability of ISSA produced in Hong Kong
2.1 ISSA sampling
2.2 Physicochemical characteristics of ISSA
2.3 Leachability and speciation fraction distribution of metal(loid)s
2.3.1 Leaching test methods
2.3.2 Results and discussion
2.4 Discussion on reuse options for ISSA
3. Phosphorus recovery from ISSA by wet extraction
3.1 Phosphorus extraction efficiency and conditions optimization
3.1.1 Single-step method P extraction Codissolution of trace element H2SO4 extraction conditions for P and heavy metal extraction
3.1.2 Two-step method P recovery Leaching of major metals
3.1.3 Comparison of two-step and single-step method
3.2 Precipitation of P as Ca-P by pH adjustment
3.2.1 NaOH as pH adjuster
3.2.2 Ca(OH)2 as pH adjuster
3.3 Change in characteristics of ISSA due to chemical extraction of P
4. Sustainable reclamation of P from ISSA as value-added struvite
4.1 P transformation in extract to Al-P and Fe-P in amorphous form
4.2 Redissolution of P and elimination of Al and Fe ions
4.3 Recovery of P as struvite and its characteristics
5. Conclusions and perspectives
15 – Bioeconomy of municipal solid waste (MSW) using gas fermentation
1. Introduction
2. Present status of gas fermentation
3. The sources of MSW
4. Gasification
4.1 Gasification process
4.2 Gasification parameters
4.2.1 Gasifiers/gasification reactors
4.2.2 Biomass flow rate, type, and properties
4.2.3 GAs (gasifying agents)
4.2.4 Moisture content
4.2.5 Temperature profile
4.3 Downstream processing
4.4 The bioeconomy of MSW
4.5 Benefits of bioeconomy
4.6 Harmful by-products of gasification
5. Problems in commercialization
6. Conclusions and perspectives
Section 3.2: Electronic wastes
16 – Current trends in gold recovery from electronic wastes
1. Introduction
2. Importance of precious metal recovery
3. Pretreatment of e-waste
4. Technologies available for precious metal recovery from e-waste
4.1 Pyrometallurgical process
4.2 Hydrometallurgy
4.2.1 Cyanide leaching
4.2.2 Halide leaching
4.2.3 Aqua regia leaching
4.2.4 Thiourea leaching
4.2.5 Thiosulfate leaching
4.2.6 Solution purification and separation
4.2.7 Current trends in hydrometallurgy
4.3 Biohydrometallurgy
5. Advantages and disadvantages of precious metal recovery techniques
6. Future outlook
7. Conclusions and perspectives
17 – Metals extraction from waste button cell battery
1. Introduction
2. Types
2.1 Mercuric oxide battery
2.1.1 Zinc/mercuric oxide battery
2.1.2 Cadmium/mercuric oxide battery
2.2 Zinc/silver oxide battery
2.3 Metal–air battery
2.4 Magnesium batteries
3. Metal recovery
3.1 Pyrometallurgical process
3.2 Hydrometallurgical process
3.3 Biohydrometallurgical process
3.4 Mechanical disintegration
4. Limitation of metal recovery techniques
5. Conclusions and perspectives
Section 3.3: Agricultural waste
18 – Energy, nutrient, and water resource recovery from agriculture and aquaculture wastes
1. Introduction
2. Resource recovery from waste and waste recycling
3. Major categories of wastes generated in India
4. Nutrient recovery from agricultural and aquaculture wastes
4.1 Agricultural waste and nutrient recovery
4.2 Aquaculture wastes and nutrient recovery
5. Energy, nutrient, and organic matter recovery—a biorefinery approach
5.1 Solid fuel production
5.2 In-house biogas production
5.3 Sustainable and renewable power generation
5.4 Biofuel from organic waste
5.5 Anaerobic treatment of solid manure residues for reduction of emission
5.6 Resource recovery from human waste
6. Water reuse and recycling opportunities
6.1 Waste to protein
6.2 Enhanced energy recovery
6.3 Using reclaimed water for agriculture and landscape irrigation
7. Waste recovery an approach to bioeconomy
8. Conclusion and perspective
19 – Energy recovery from biomass using gasification
1. Introduction
2. Biomass
2.1 Sources and types of biomass
2.2 Characteristics of feedstock
2.2.1 Moisture content
2.2.2 Calorific value
2.2.3 Volatile matter and fixed carbon content
2.2.4 Ash/residue content
2.2.5 Alkali metal content
2.2.6 Cellulose/lignin ratio
2.3 Pretreatment of feedstock
3. Technologies for energy conversion
3.1 Thermo-chemical conversion (TCC)
3.1.1 Combustion
3.1.2 Pyrolysis
3.1.3 Gasification
3.1.4 Liquefaction
3.2 Bio-chemical conversion (BCC)
3.2.1 Anaerobic digestion
3.2.2 Fermentation
4. Gasification and its advantages
4.1 Fixed bed gasification
4.1.1 Updraft gasifier
4.1.2 Downdraft gasifier
4.1.3 Cross-flow gasifier
4.2 Fluidized bed gasification
4.2.1 Bubbling fluidized bed gasification
4.2.2 Entrained flow gasification/circulating fluidized bed gasification
4.2.3 Slagging bed gasifier
4.3 Integrated gasification combined cycle
4.4 Limitations
5. Conclusions and perspectives
20 – Valorization of lignocellulosic-based wastes
1. Introduction
2. Bioactive compounds from extractives
2.1 Lignocellulosic sources of extractives with bioactivity properties
2.2 Extraction methodologies
2.3 Applications
3. Polysaccharides: cellulose and hemicellulose
3.1 Cellulose and hemicellulose structure
3.2 Selective extraction methodologies for cellulose and hemicellulose
3.3 Main derived products from polysaccharide
4. Lignin
4.1 Lignin structure
4.2 Sources, extraction, and properties
4.3 Application
5. Conclusion and perspectives
21 – Recovery of silica from rice straw and husk
1. Introduction
1.1 Rice straw and husk
1.2 Structure of silica in rice straw/husk
1.3 Silica production process
1.4 Pretreatments
1.4.1 Acid leaching Mineral acids Organic acids
1.4.2 Basic pretreatment
1.4.3 Hydrothermal pretreatment
1.4.4 Biological pretreatment
1.5 Thermal treatment
1.5.1 Muffle furnace
1.5.2 Fixed bed furnace
1.5.3 Cyclone furnace
1.5.4 Rotary kiln
1.5.5 Fluidized-bed furnace
1.5.6 Conical spouted bed reactor
1.5.7 Tube-in-basket furnace
1.6 Posttreatments
1.6.1 Acid treatment
1.6.2 Silica dissolution followed by precipitation
2. Properties of silica
2.1 Whiteness
2.2 Purity
2.3 Structure
2.4 Porosity
2.5 Particle size
2.6 Morphology
3. Silica applications
4. Conclusions and perspectives
Section 3.4: Others
22 – Biological treatment for the recovery of minerals from low-grade ores
1. Introduction
2. Mining pollution
3. Regulations
4. Microbe-mediated bioleaching
4.1 Autotrophic microorganisms
4.2 Heterotrophic microorganisms
4.3 Mixotrophic microorganisms
5. Bioleaching of metals from ores
5.1 Mechanism of bioleaching
5.2 Factors influencing bioleaching
6. Biotechnological applications
7. Mechanisms of metal resistance in microbes
8. Current gaps and ongoing activities
9. Conclusions and perspectives
23 – Perspectives on bio-oil recovery from plastic waste
1. Introduction
2. Commercial plastics and its types
2.1 Low-density polyethylene
2.2 High-density polyethylene
2.3 Polypropylene
2.4 Polystyrene
2.5 Polyvinyl chloride
2.6 Polyethylene terephthalate
3. Environmental concerns due to plastics
4. Technologies available for converting plastic to useful compounds
4.1 Plastic waste management
4.2 Methods of waste management
4.3 Landfill
4.4 Incineration
4.5 Recycling
4.6 Pyrolysis
4.7 Gasification
4.8 Hydrogenation
5. Pretreatment of plastic waste
6. Pyrolysis
6.1 Thermal pyrolysis
6.2 Catalytic pyrolysis
6.3 Catalysts used in pyrolysis
6.4 Pyrolysis of commercial plastics
6.4.1 Low-density polyethylene
6.4.2 High-density polyethylene
6.4.3 Polystyrene
6.4.4 Polypropylene
6.4.5 Polyethylene terephthalate
6.4.6 Polyvinyl chloride
7. Reactors used in pyrolysis
7.1 Batch reactor
7.2 Semibatch reactor
7.3 Fixed bed reactor
7.4 Fluidized bed reactors
7.5 Conical bed reactors
8. Factors affecting pyrolysis
8.1 Effect of feedstock
8.2 Effect of catalyst
8.3 Effect of temperature
9. Characterization of fuel oil
9.1 Density
9.2 Viscosity
9.3 Flash point
9.4 Calorific value
10. Conclusions and perspectives
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